::Iranian Revolution


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{{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use mdy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }}The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution;<ref name="Chamber">Islamic Revolution, Iran Chamber.</ref><ref name="Encarta">Islamic Revolution of Iran, MS Encarta. Archived October 31, 2009.</ref><ref>The Islamic Revolution, Internews.</ref><ref>Islamic Revolution.</ref><ref name="Jubilee">Iran Profile, PDF.</ref><ref>The Shah and the Ayatollah: Iranian Mythology and Islamic Revolution (Hardcover), ISBN 0-275-97858-3, by Fereydoun Hoveyda, brother of Amir Abbas Hoveyda.</ref> Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi or انقلاب بیست و دو بهمن) refers to events involving the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who was supported by the United States<ref name="mohammadreza">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> and its eventual replacement with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution, supported by various leftist and Islamic organizations<ref name="orsam">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> and Iranian student movements.

Demonstrations against the Shah commenced in October 1977, developing into a campaign of civil resistance that included both secular and religious elements.<ref name=Abrahamian /><ref name=Afkhami>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>Ervand Abrahamian, 'Mass Protests in the Islamic Revolution, 1977–79’, in Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press (2009), pp. 162–78.</ref> and which intensified in January 1978.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Between August and December 1978 strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country. The Shah left Iran for exile on January 16, 1979, as the last Persian monarch, leaving his duties to a regency council and an opposition-based prime minister. Ayatollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran by the government,<ref name="Milani Shah" /><ref name=Milani-Persians /> and returned to Tehran to a greeting by several million Iranians.<ref>1979: Exiled Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran|</ref> The royal reign collapsed shortly after on February 11 when guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting, bringing Khomeini to official power.<ref>Graham, Iran (1980) p. 228.</ref><ref>Kurzman, Charles, The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran, Harvard University Press, 2004, p.111</ref> Iran voted by national referendum to become an Islamic Republic on April 1, 1979,<ref>Iran Islamic Republic, Encyclopædia Britannica.</ref> and to approve a new theocratic-republican constitution<ref name=Abrahamian /><ref name=Afkhami /><ref name=Kurzman>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name=Amuzegar /> whereby Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country, in December 1979.

The revolution was unusual for the surprise it created throughout the world:<ref>Amuzegar, The Dynamics of the Iranian Revolution, (1991), p.4, 9–12</ref> it lacked many of the customary causes of revolution (defeat at war, a financial crisis, peasant rebellion, or disgruntled military),<ref>Arjomand, Turban (1988), p. 191.</ref> occurred in a nation that was enjoying relatively good material wealth and prosperity,<ref name="Milani Shah" /><ref name=Amuzegar /> produced profound change at great speed,<ref>Amuzegar, Jahangir, The Dynamics of the Iranian Revolution, SUNY Press, p.10</ref> was massively popular, resulted in the exile of many Iranians,<ref name="Kurzman, 2004 p.121">Kurzman, The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran, (2004), p.121</ref> and replaced a pro-Western semi-absolute monarchy<ref name="Milani Shah" /> with an anti-Western authoritarian theocracy<ref name="Milani Shah" /><ref name=Kurzman /><ref name=Amuzegar /><ref name="Iran: A Brief Study">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="Middle East Studies 1987, p. 261">International Journal of Middle East Studies, 19, 1987, p. 261</ref> based on the concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (or velayat-e faqih). It was a relatively non-violent revolution, and helped to redefine the meaning and practice of modern revolutions (although there was violence in its aftermath).<ref name=Ritter>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Its outcome – an Islamic Republic "under the guidance of a religious scholar from Qom" – was, as one scholar put it, "clearly an occurrence that had to be explained".<ref name = "Benard 1984 18">Benard, "The Government of God" (1984), p. 18.</ref>

Iranian Revolution sections
Intro   Causes    Historical background    Revolution    Aftermath    Gallery    See also    References and notes    Further reading    External links