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Islamic Republic of Iran
{{safesubst:#invoke:Separated entries|br}}
Flag of Iran Emblem of Iran
Flag Emblem
"استقلال، آزادی، جمهوری اسلامی{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}"
"Esteqlāl, Āzādi, Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi"
"Independence, freedom, the Islamic Republic"
(de facto)<ref name="Temperman2010">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


Anthem: مهر خاوران{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}
Mehr-e Xāvarān
"The Eastern Sun"
Location of Iran
and largest city

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Official languages Persian
Spoken languages<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


Religion Official:
Shia Islam
Other recognized religions:
Demonym Iranian
Government de jure Islamic republic
de facto Unitary presidential republic
 -  Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei
 -  President Hassan Rouhani
Legislature Islamic Consultative Assembly
Unification<ref name="Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopedia Article: Media ancient region, Iran"/>
 -  Median Empire c. 678 BC 
 -  Achaemenid Empire 550 BC 
 -  Sassanid Empire<ref name="AlirezaShahbazi">Alireza Shapur Shahbazi (2005), "The History of the Idea of Iran", in Vesta Curtis ed., Birth of the Persian Empire, IB Tauris, London, p. 108: "Similarly the collapse of Sassanian Eranshahr in AD 650 did not end Iranians' national idea. The name 'Iran' disappeared from official records of the Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids, Saljuqs and their successor. But one unofficially used the name Iran, Eranshahr, and similar national designations, particularly Mamalek-e Iran or "Iranian lands", which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam. On the other hand, when the Safavids (not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed) revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman empire and even Iran itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations".</ref> 224 AD 
 -  Safavid Empire 1501<ref name="Andrew J. Newman 2006"/> 
 -  Islamic Republic 1 April 1979 
 -  Current constitution 24 October 1979 
 -  Constitution amendment 28 July 1989 
 -  Total 1,648,195 km2 (18th)
636,372 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 0.7
 -  2013 estimate 78,192,200 <ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


}}</ref> (17th)
 -  Density 48/km2 (162rd)
124/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $1.284 trillion<ref name="imf1">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


}}</ref> (18th)
 -  Per capita $16,463<ref name="imf1"/> (72nd)
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $402.700 billion<ref name="imf1"/> (29th)
 -  Per capita $5,165<ref name="imf1"/> (98th)
Gini (2010)38<ref name=TT5>Central bank: Income equality improved in Iran{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B=

{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[dead link]

HDI (2013)File:Decrease2.svg 0.749<ref name="HDI">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


high · 75th
Currency Rial (﷼) (IRR)
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 -  Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30)
Date format yyyy/mm/dd (SH)
Drives on the right
Calling code +98
ISO 3166 code IR
Internet TLD {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}

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Iran ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}<ref name=AHD>{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[dead link] }}</ref> or {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}};<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Persian: ایران‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}‎ [ʔiːˈɾɑn]), also known as Persia ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} or {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}),<ref>"Communication", Iranian Studies, Jan. 1989, vol. 22, no 1, Ehsan Yarshater, pp. 62-65. A decree of December 1934 asked foreign countries to use the name "Iran" instead of "Persia". However, in 1959, both names were authorized.</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="Iranicaonline.org">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.<ref name="BBC">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia, the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and Azerbaijan; with Kazakhstan and Russia across the Caspian Sea; to the northeast by Turkmenistan; to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan; to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Comprising a land area of {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}}, it is the second-largest nation in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world. With 78.4 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 17th most populous nation.<ref name="BBC"/><ref name="britannica1">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> It is the only country that has both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. Iran has long been of geostrategic importance because of its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz.

Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations,<ref>Christopher A Whatley (2001). Bought and Sold for English Gold: The Union of 1707 (Tuckwell Press, 2001)</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> beginning with the formation of the Proto-Elamite and Elamite kingdoms in 3200–2800 BC. The Iranian Medes unified the area into the first of many empires in 625 BC, after which it became the dominant cultural and political power in the region.<ref name="Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopedia Article: Media ancient region, Iran">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Iran reached the pinnacle of its power during the Achaemenid Empire founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC, which at its greatest extent comprised major portions of the ancient world, stretching from parts of the Balkans (Thrace-Macedonia, Bulgaria-Paeonia) and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen.<ref name="book">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great. The Hellenistic Parthian Empire emerged from the ashes and was succeeded by the Sassanid Dynasty (Neo-Persian empire) in 224 AD, under which Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world, along with the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than four centuries.<ref name="Norman A. Stillman pp 22">Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 ISBN 0827611552</ref><ref name="Byzantine Studies 2006, pp 29">International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 ISBN 075465740X</ref>

In 633 AD, Rashidun Muslims invaded Persia and conquered it by 651 AD, largely replacing the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism.<ref name="Levy2009">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age, producing many influential scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers. The establishment of the Safavid Dynasty in 1501, which promoted Twelver Shia Islam as the official religion, marked one of the most important turning points in Iranian and Muslim history.<ref name="Andrew J. Newman 2006">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name="savoryeiref">R.M. Savory, Safavids, Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd edition</ref><ref name="islamic1600"/> Starting in 1736 under Nader Shah, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, briefly possessing what was arguably the most powerful empire in the world.<ref name="books.google.nl">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> In the course of the 19th century, Iran irrevocably lost swaths of its territories in the Caucasus region which made part of the concept of Iran for three centuries,{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} to neighboring Imperial Russia.<ref name="Timothy C. Dowling pp 728-729">Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp 728-730 ABC-CLIO, 2 dec. 2014 ISBN 1598849484</ref> Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a constitutional monarchy and the nation's first parliament. Following a coup d'état instigated by the U.K. and the U.S. in 1953, Iran gradually became close allies with the United States and the rest of the West, remained secular, but grew increasingly autocratic.<ref name="Anthony H. Cordesman p 22">Anthony H. Cordesman "Iran's Military Forces in Transition: Conventional Threats and Weapons of Mass Destruction" p 22</ref> Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression culminated in the 1979 Revolution, which led to the establishment of an Islamic republic on 1 April 1979.<ref name="britannica1"/><ref name="Britannica"/>

Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading cultural and economic center. Iran is a major regional and middle power,<ref name="parliament">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="petro-hunt">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> exerting considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy through its large reserves of fossil fuels, which include the largest natural gas supply in the world and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves.<ref name=wsjgas>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[dead link] }}</ref><ref name="CIA">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Iran's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 19 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the fourth-largest number in Asia and 12th-largest in the world.<ref>World Heritage List, UNESCO World Heritage Sites official sites</ref>

Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. Its unique political system, based on the 1979 constitution, combines elements of a parliamentary democracy with a theocracy governed by the country's clergy, wherein the Supreme Leader wields significant influence. A multicultural nation comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are officially Shia, and Persian is the official language.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Iran sections
Intro  Etymology  History  Geography  Government and politics  Economy  Demographics  Culture  See also  Bibliography  References  External links  

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