::Intrauterine device


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An intrauterine device (IUD or coil)<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> is a small contraceptive device, often 'T'-shaped, often containing either copper or levonorgestrel, which is inserted into the uterus. They are one form of long-acting reversible contraception which are the most effective types of reversible birth control.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Failure rates with the copper IUD is about 0.8% while the levonorgestrel IUD has a failure rate of 0.2% in the first year of use.<ref name=Hopkins2010>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Among types of birth control they, along with birth control implants, result in the greatest satisfaction among users.<ref name=Comm2012>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> As of 2007, IUDs are the most widely used form of reversible contraception, with more than 180 million users worldwide.<ref name=Darney2010>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Evidence supports effectiveness and safety in adolescents<ref name=Comm2012/> and those who have and have not previously had children.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> IUDs do not affect breastfeeding and can be inserted immediately after delivery.<ref name=Gabbe2012>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> They may also be used immediately after an abortion.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Once removed, even after long term use, fertility returns to normal immediately.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

While copper IUDs may increase menstrual bleeding and result in more painful cramps<ref name=Grimes2007>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> hormonal IUDs may reduce menstrual bleeding or stop menstruation altogether.<ref name=Gabbe2012/> Cramping can be treated with NSAIDs.<ref name=Marnach2013/> Other potential complications include expulsion (2–5%) and rarely perforation of the uterus (less than 0.7%).<ref name=Gabbe2012/><ref name=Marnach2013>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> A previous model of the intrauterine device (the Dalkon shield) was associated with an increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease; however, the risk is not affected with current models in those without sexually transmitted infections around the time of insertion.<ref name="guttmacher2007">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Intrauterine device sections
Intro  Types  Adverse effects  Mechanism  History  References