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Intermolecular forces are forces of attraction or repulsion which act between neighboring particles (atoms, molecules or ions). They are weak compared to the intramolecular forces, the forces which keep a molecule together. For example the covalent bond, involving the sharing of electron pairs between atoms is much stronger than the forces present between the neighboring molecules. They are an essential part of force fields used in molecular mechanics.

The investigation of intermolecular forces starts from macroscopic observations which point out the existence and action of forces at a molecular level. These observations include non-ideal gas thermodynamic behavior reflected by virial coefficients, vapor pressure, viscosity, superficial tension and absorption data.

The first reference to the nature of microscopic forces is found in Alexis Clairaut's work Theorie de la Figure de la Terre.<ref>Margenau, H. and Kestner, N. (1969) Theory of intermolecular forces, International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Pergamon Press, ISBN 1483119289</ref> Other scientists who have contributed to the investigation of microscopic forces include: Laplace, Gauss, Maxwell and Boltzmann.

Attractive intermolecular forces are considered by the following types:

Information on intermolecular force is obtained by macroscopic measurements of properties like viscosity, PVT data. The link to microscopic aspects is given by virial coefficients and Lennard-Jones potentials.


Intermolecular force sections
Intro  [[Intermolecular_force?section=Dipole-dipole_interactions_{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}_|Dipole-dipole interactions {{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}} ]]  van der Waals forces  Relative strength of forces  Quantum mechanical theories   See also   References  

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Forces::force    Between::dipole    Molecule::dipoles    First::waals    Keesom::london    Hydrogen::journal

Intermolecular forces are forces of attraction or repulsion which act between neighboring particles (atoms, molecules or ions). They are weak compared to the intramolecular forces, the forces which keep a molecule together. For example the covalent bond, involving the sharing of electron pairs between atoms is much stronger than the forces present between the neighboring molecules. They are an essential part of force fields used in molecular mechanics.

The investigation of intermolecular forces starts from macroscopic observations which point out the existence and action of forces at a molecular level. These observations include non-ideal gas thermodynamic behavior reflected by virial coefficients, vapor pressure, viscosity, superficial tension and absorption data.

The first reference to the nature of microscopic forces is found in Alexis Clairaut's work Theorie de la Figure de la Terre.<ref>Margenau, H. and Kestner, N. (1969) Theory of intermolecular forces, International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Pergamon Press, ISBN 1483119289</ref> Other scientists who have contributed to the investigation of microscopic forces include: Laplace, Gauss, Maxwell and Boltzmann.

Attractive intermolecular forces are considered by the following types:

Information on intermolecular force is obtained by macroscopic measurements of properties like viscosity, PVT data. The link to microscopic aspects is given by virial coefficients and Lennard-Jones potentials.


Intermolecular force sections
Intro  [[Intermolecular_force?section=Dipole-dipole_interactions_{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}_|Dipole-dipole interactions {{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}} ]]  van der Waals forces  Relative strength of forces  Quantum mechanical theories   See also   References  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: [[Intermolecular_force?section=Dipole-dipole_interactions_{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}_|Dipole-dipole interactions {{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}} ]]
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