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Republic of Indonesia
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Flag National emblem
Motto: "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" (Old Javanese)
"Unity in Diversity"

National ideology: Pancasila<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal

}}</ref><ref name="Vickers">Vickers, p. 117</ref>
Anthem: Indonesia Raya
Great Indonesia
Location of  Indonesia{{#invoke:String
Location of  Indonesia{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(green)

in ASEAN{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(dark grey)  –  [Legend]

and largest city

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Official languages Indonesian
Religion Official recognition:[a]
Demonym Indonesian
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
 -  President Joko Widodo
 -  Vice-President Jusuf Kalla
Legislature People's Consultative Assembly
 -  Upper house Regional Representative Council
 -  Lower house People's Representative Council
 -  Dutch East India Company 20 March 1602 
 -  Netherlands Indies 1 January 1800 
 -  Japanese occupation 9 March 1942 
 -  Declared Independence 17 August 1945 
 -  United States of Indonesia 27 December 1949 
 -  Federation dissolved 17 August 1950 
 -  New Order 12 March 1967 
 -  Reformation Order 21 May 1998 
 -  Land 1,904,569 km2 (15th)
735,358 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 4.85
 -  2015 estimate 255,461,700<ref name="bpsest">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


 -  2011 census 237,424,363<ref name="imf2"/> (4th)
 -  Density 124.66/km2 (84th)
322.87/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $2.840 trillion<ref name=imf2/> (8th)
 -  Per capita $11,135<ref name=imf2/> (102nd)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $895.677 billion<ref name = "imf2">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


}}</ref> (16th)
 -  Per capita $3,511<ref name=imf2/> (117th)
Gini (2010)35.6<ref name="wb-gini">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


HDI (2013)Steady 0.684<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


medium · 108th
Currency Indonesian rupiah (Rp) (IDR)
Time zone various (UTC+7 - +9)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+7 - +9)
Drives on the left
Calling code +62
ISO 3166 code ID
Internet TLD .id
a. ^a The government officially recognises only six religions: Islam, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.<ref name="Yang">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation



Indonesia ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} IN-də-NEE-zhə or {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} IN-doh-NEE-zee-ə; Indonesian: [ɪndonesia]), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} [rɛpublik ɪndonesia]), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia. An archipelago comprising thousands of islands,<ref>"The Naming Procedures of Indonesia's Islands", Tenth United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names, New York, 31 July – 9 August 2012, United Nations Economic and Social Council</ref> Indonesia has an estimated population of over 255 million people and is the world's fourth-most-populous country and the most-populous Muslim-majority country.

Indonesia's republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status. The nation's capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indonesia is a founding member of ASEAN and a member of the G-20 major economies. The Indonesian economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP at PPP.

The Indonesian archipelago has been an important trade region since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Muslim traders brought the now-dominant Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Following three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism starting from the East Indonesia of West Papua, Timor to eventually all of West Indonesia, at times interrupted by Portuguese, French and British rule, Indonesia secured its independence after World War II. Indonesia's history has since been turbulent, with challenges posed by natural disasters, mass slaughter, corruption, separatism, a democratisation process, and periods of rapid economic change.

Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a majority Muslim population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources, yet poverty remains widespread.<ref name=economist1>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}; correction.</ref><ref name = "Asia">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>


The name Indonesia derives from the Greek words Indós and nèsos, meaning "Indian island".<ref name = "EcoSeas1">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia.<ref name = "indoety">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians — and, his preference, Malayunesians — for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago".<ref name="JIAEA_1">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> In the same publication, a student of Earl's, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago.<ref name="JIAEA_3">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. Instead, they used the terms Malay Archipelago (Maleische Archipel); the Netherlands East Indies (Nederlandsch Oost Indië), popularly Indië; the East (de Oost); and Insulinde.<ref name = "Kroef">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

After 1900, the name Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, and Indonesian nationalist groups adopted it for political expression.<ref name = "Kroef" /> Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894. The first Indonesian scholar to use the name was Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara), when he established a press bureau in the Netherlands with the name Indonesisch Pers-bureau in 1913.<ref name="indoety"/>

Indonesia sections
Intro  History  Government and politics  Foreign relations and military  Administrative divisions  Geography  Biodiversity   Environment   Economy  Demographics  Language  Sports   Tourism   Culture  See also  References  Further reading  External links  

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