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In sociology and social psychology, an ingroup is a social group to which a person psychologically identifies as being a member. By contrast, an outgroup is a social group with which an individual does not identify. For example, people may find it psychologically meaningful to view themselves according to their race, culture, gender, age, or religion. It has been found that the psychological membership of social groups and categories is associated with a wide variety of phenomena.

The terminology was made popular by Henri Tajfel and colleagues during his work in formulating social identity theory. The significance of ingroup and outgroup categorization was identified using a method called the minimal group paradigm. Tajfel and colleagues found that people can form self-preferencing ingroups within a matter of minutes and that such groups can form even on the basis of seemingly trivial characteristics, such as preferences for certain paintings.<ref>See "Kandinsky versus Klee experiment", Tajfel et al. (1971).</ref><ref>Tajfel, H. (1970). Experiments in Intergroup Discrimination.</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref>Tajfel, H. (1974). Social Identity and Intergroup Behavior.</ref>


Ingroups and outgroups sections
Intro  Associated phenomena  Postulated role in human evolution   See also    References   

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In sociology and social psychology, an ingroup is a social group to which a person psychologically identifies as being a member. By contrast, an outgroup is a social group with which an individual does not identify. For example, people may find it psychologically meaningful to view themselves according to their race, culture, gender, age, or religion. It has been found that the psychological membership of social groups and categories is associated with a wide variety of phenomena.

The terminology was made popular by Henri Tajfel and colleagues during his work in formulating social identity theory. The significance of ingroup and outgroup categorization was identified using a method called the minimal group paradigm. Tajfel and colleagues found that people can form self-preferencing ingroups within a matter of minutes and that such groups can form even on the basis of seemingly trivial characteristics, such as preferences for certain paintings.<ref>See "Kandinsky versus Klee experiment", Tajfel et al. (1971).</ref><ref>Tajfel, H. (1970). Experiments in Intergroup Discrimination.</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref>Tajfel, H. (1974). Social Identity and Intergroup Behavior.</ref>


Ingroups and outgroups sections
Intro  Associated phenomena  Postulated role in human evolution   See also    References   

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Associated phenomena
<<>>