The Buyid empire takes shape::Imad al-Dawla


Al-Dawla::buyid    Category::title    Managed::control    Under::history    Isfahan::'''the    Ahmad::ziyarid

The Buyid empire takes shape Bolstered by many of Mardavij's Turkish mercenaries that had joined him, as well as the collapse of Ziyarid control over central Iran, Ali decided that Isfahan should be taken. He sent his brother Hasan to accomplish this. Hasan initially managed to take Isfahan but later encountered difficulties (for details about his campaigns in central Iran, see Rukn al-Dawla). After Hasan took Isfahan, Ali sent his other brother Ahmad (see Mu'izz al-Dawla) to take Kerman. Although the bulk of that province was compelled to recognize Buyid authority, direct control was not established, and Ali eventually recalled him.

Ali next sent Ahmad to Khuzestan, where the Basrian clan of the Baridis had become the de facto rulers of the province but were trying to throw off caliphal rule. They asked Ali for their struggle against the Abbasids, providing the pretext for Ahmad to enter Khuzestan. Although the Baridis temporarily recovered the province and even managed to take Baghdad a few times, Ahmad eventually took control of Khuzestan himself. From Khuzestan Ahmad waged a series of campaigns in Iraq, until in 945 he entered Baghdad.<ref>Abbasids, B. Lewis, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, ed. H.A.R. Gibbs, J.H. Kramers, E. Levi-Provencal and J. Schacht, (Brill, 1986), 19.</ref> The caliph then gave him the title of "Mu'izz al-Dawla",<ref>Abbasids, B. Lewis, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, 19.</ref> while Ali and Hasan were given the titles of "Imad al-Dawla" and "Rukn al-Dawla," respectively. By 948 Rukn al-Dawla had also secured his position in central Iran, causing a clear definition of the borders of the Buyid state.

Imad al-Dawla was not the master of the entire Buyid empire. Rukn al-Dawla, partly as a result of Imad al-Dawla's failure to send him military support during his struggles in central Iran, was relatively independent of his brother. Mu'izz al-Dawla, on the other hand, had been given support by his brother in his efforts to take Khuzestan, and was a subordinate of Imad al-Dawla. He was not listed as an independent ruler on contemporary sources, and the name of his brother appeared before his own on coins struck by him. Despite the fact that Mu'izz al-Dawla's capture of Baghdad resulted in him gaining the title of senior amir (amir al-umara), which in theory made him the highest ranking individual out of all three Buyids, he remained little more than a provincial ruler under Imad al-Dawla's authority. Imad al-Dawla himself claimed the title of senior amir during his lifetime, and although he never officially held it, nor was entitled to do so, he was recognized as the de facto holder of that position.

Imad al-Dawla's lack of an heir posed a problem until shortly before his death. A few months beforehand, he settled on Rukn al-Dawla's eldest son Fana Khusraw as his successor. He died in December 949, and his brothers helped to install Fana-Khusrau (who took the title of "'Adud al-Dawla") in Shiraz. Rukn al-Dawla, who was the most powerful of the Buyids, claimed the title of senior amir for himself and received both Mu'izz al-Dawla's and 'Adud al-Dawla's recognition as such.

Imad al-Dawla sections
Intro   Early career    Foundation of the Buyid state    The Buyid empire takes shape    References    Sources   

The Buyid empire takes shape
PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Early career