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::Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

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{{#invoke:Protection banner|main}} {{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=EngvarB |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL; Arabic: الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS, {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}) or the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham,<ref name="ISIS or ISIL? The debate"/> Islamic State (IS),<ref name="What is IS">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> or Daesh (داعش{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, Arabic pronunciation: [ˈdaːʕiʃ]),<ref name="DAESH shift"/> is a Wahhabi/Salafi jihadist extremist militant group and self-proclaimed Islamic state and caliphate, which is led by and mainly composed of Sunni Arabs from Iraq and Syria.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}
Islamic State is not a state, since it lacks international recognition. See: {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> As of March 2015, it has control over territory occupied by ten million people<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> in Iraq and Syria, and has nominal control over small areas of Libya, Nigeria and Afghanistan.<ref name="reuters-turfwar">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref name="Militant Attack and Support Zones in Afghanistan">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> The group also operates or has affiliates in other parts of the world, including North Africa and South Asia.<ref name="Pakistani Taliban pledges allegiance to ISIL">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref name="ISIL gains supporters" />

The group is known in Arabic as ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī 'l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām, leading to the acronym Da'ish or Daesh, the Arabic equivalent of "ISIL".<ref name="ISIS or ISIL? The debate"/> On 29 June 2014, the group proclaimed itself to be a worldwide caliphate, with Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi being named its caliph,<ref name="newname">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> and renamed itself ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah (الدولة الإسلامية{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, "Islamic State" (IS)). As a caliphate, it claims religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide, and that "the legality of all emirates, groups, states, and organisations, becomes null by the expansion of the khilāfah's [caliphate's] authority and arrival of its troops to their areas".<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="The Week">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> The United Nations has held ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, and Amnesty International has reported ethnic cleansing by the group on a "historic scale". The group has been designated a terrorist organisation by the United Nations, the European Union and member states, the United States, India, Indonesia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Syria and other countries. Over 60 countries are directly or indirectly waging war against ISIL.

The group originated as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in 1999, which pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda in 2004. The group participated in the Iraqi insurgency that followed the March 2003 invasion of Iraq by Western forces. In January 2006, it joined other Sunni insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council, which proclaimed the formation of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) in October 2006. After the Syrian Civil War began in March 2011, the ISI, under the leadership of al-Baghdadi, sent delegates into Syria in August 2011. These fighters named themselves Jabhat an-Nuṣrah li-Ahli ash-Shāmal-Nusra Front—and established a large presence in Sunni-majority areas of Syria, within the governorates of Ar-Raqqah, Idlib, Deir ez-Zor, and Aleppo.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> In April 2013, al-Baghdadi announced the merger of the ISI with al-Nusra Front and that the name of the reunited group was now the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). However, Abu Mohammad al-Julani and Ayman al-Zawahiri, the leaders of al-Nusra and al-Qaeda respectively, rejected the merger. After an eight-month power struggle, al-Qaeda cut all ties with ISIL on 3 February 2014, citing its failure to consult and "notorious intransigence".<ref name="al-Qaeda severs link with ISIL">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref name="AlQaedaTiesEnd">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> In Syria, the group has conducted ground attacks on both government forces and rebel factions in the Syrian Civil War. The group gained prominence after it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in western Iraq in an offensive initiated in early 2014. Iraq's territorial loss almost caused a collapse of the Iraqi government and prompted a renewal of US military action in Iraq.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

ISIL is adept at social media, posting Internet videos of beheadings of soldiers, civilians, journalists and aid workers, and is known for its destruction of cultural heritage sites.<ref name="al-shorfa">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Muslim leaders around the world have condemned ISIL's ideology and actions, arguing that the group has strayed from the path of true Islam and that its actions do not reflect the religion's true teachings or virtues.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> The group's adoption of the name "Islamic State" and idea of a caliphate have been widely criticised, with the United Nations, NATO, various governments, and mainstream Muslim groups rejecting both.


Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant sections
Intro  [[Islamic_State_of_Iraq_and_the_Levant?section=Etymology_{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}|Etymology {{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}]]  History  Worldwide caliphate aims  Designation as a terrorist organisation  Human rights abuse and war crime findings  Criticism  In the media  Countries and groups at war with ISIL  Supporters  Military and resources  Timeline of events  See also  References  Bibliography  External links  

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Title::islamic    First::state    Syria::group    World::august    Flagu::october    Syrian::november

{{#invoke:Protection banner|main}} {{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=EngvarB |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL; Arabic: الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS, {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}) or the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham,<ref name="ISIS or ISIL? The debate"/> Islamic State (IS),<ref name="What is IS">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> or Daesh (داعش{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, Arabic pronunciation: [ˈdaːʕiʃ]),<ref name="DAESH shift"/> is a Wahhabi/Salafi jihadist extremist militant group and self-proclaimed Islamic state and caliphate, which is led by and mainly composed of Sunni Arabs from Iraq and Syria.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}
Islamic State is not a state, since it lacks international recognition. See: {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> As of March 2015, it has control over territory occupied by ten million people<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> in Iraq and Syria, and has nominal control over small areas of Libya, Nigeria and Afghanistan.<ref name="reuters-turfwar">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref name="Militant Attack and Support Zones in Afghanistan">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> The group also operates or has affiliates in other parts of the world, including North Africa and South Asia.<ref name="Pakistani Taliban pledges allegiance to ISIL">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref name="ISIL gains supporters" />

The group is known in Arabic as ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī 'l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām, leading to the acronym Da'ish or Daesh, the Arabic equivalent of "ISIL".<ref name="ISIS or ISIL? The debate"/> On 29 June 2014, the group proclaimed itself to be a worldwide caliphate, with Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi being named its caliph,<ref name="newname">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> and renamed itself ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah (الدولة الإسلامية{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, "Islamic State" (IS)). As a caliphate, it claims religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide, and that "the legality of all emirates, groups, states, and organisations, becomes null by the expansion of the khilāfah's [caliphate's] authority and arrival of its troops to their areas".<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="The Week">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> The United Nations has held ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, and Amnesty International has reported ethnic cleansing by the group on a "historic scale". The group has been designated a terrorist organisation by the United Nations, the European Union and member states, the United States, India, Indonesia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Syria and other countries. Over 60 countries are directly or indirectly waging war against ISIL.

The group originated as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in 1999, which pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda in 2004. The group participated in the Iraqi insurgency that followed the March 2003 invasion of Iraq by Western forces. In January 2006, it joined other Sunni insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council, which proclaimed the formation of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) in October 2006. After the Syrian Civil War began in March 2011, the ISI, under the leadership of al-Baghdadi, sent delegates into Syria in August 2011. These fighters named themselves Jabhat an-Nuṣrah li-Ahli ash-Shāmal-Nusra Front—and established a large presence in Sunni-majority areas of Syria, within the governorates of Ar-Raqqah, Idlib, Deir ez-Zor, and Aleppo.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> In April 2013, al-Baghdadi announced the merger of the ISI with al-Nusra Front and that the name of the reunited group was now the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). However, Abu Mohammad al-Julani and Ayman al-Zawahiri, the leaders of al-Nusra and al-Qaeda respectively, rejected the merger. After an eight-month power struggle, al-Qaeda cut all ties with ISIL on 3 February 2014, citing its failure to consult and "notorious intransigence".<ref name="al-Qaeda severs link with ISIL">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref name="AlQaedaTiesEnd">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> In Syria, the group has conducted ground attacks on both government forces and rebel factions in the Syrian Civil War. The group gained prominence after it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in western Iraq in an offensive initiated in early 2014. Iraq's territorial loss almost caused a collapse of the Iraqi government and prompted a renewal of US military action in Iraq.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

ISIL is adept at social media, posting Internet videos of beheadings of soldiers, civilians, journalists and aid workers, and is known for its destruction of cultural heritage sites.<ref name="al-shorfa">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Muslim leaders around the world have condemned ISIL's ideology and actions, arguing that the group has strayed from the path of true Islam and that its actions do not reflect the religion's true teachings or virtues.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> The group's adoption of the name "Islamic State" and idea of a caliphate have been widely criticised, with the United Nations, NATO, various governments, and mainstream Muslim groups rejecting both.


Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant sections
Intro  [[Islamic_State_of_Iraq_and_the_Levant?section=Etymology_{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}|Etymology {{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}]]  History  Worldwide caliphate aims  Designation as a terrorist organisation  Human rights abuse and war crime findings  Criticism  In the media  Countries and groups at war with ISIL  Supporters  Military and resources  Timeline of events  See also  References  Bibliography  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: [[Islamic_State_of_Iraq_and_the_Levant?section=Etymology_{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}|Etymology {{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}]]
<<[[Islamic_State_of_Iraq_and_the_Levant?section=Etymology_{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}|>>]]