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{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=EngvarB |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} Hindu texts are manuscripts and historic literature related to any of the diverse traditions within Hinduism. A few texts are shared resources across these traditions and broadly considered as Hindu scriptures.<ref>Frazier, Jessica (2011), The Continuum companion to Hindu studies, London: Continuum, ISBN 978-0826499660, pages 1–15</ref><ref name=goodallix/> These include the Vedas and the Upanishads. Scholars hesitate in defining the term "Hindu scripture" given the diverse nature of Hinduism,<ref name=goodallix>Dominic Goodall (1996), Hindu Scriptures, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520207783, page ix-xliii</ref><ref name=klausscrip/> many include Bhagavad Gita and Agamas as Hindu scriptures,<ref name=goodallix/><ref name=klausscrip>Klaus Klostermaier (2007), A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791470824, pages 46-52, 76-77</ref><ref>RC Zaehner (1992), Hindu Scriptures, Penguin Random House, ISBN 978-0679410782, pages 1-11 and Preface</ref> while Dominic Goodall includes Bhagavata Purana and Yajnavalkya Smriti to the list of Hindu scriptures.<ref name=goodallix/>

There are two historic classifications of Hindu texts: Shruti – that which is heard,<ref name=jamessruti/> and Smriti – that which is remembered.<ref name=jamesmriti/> The Śruti refers to the body of most authoritative, ancient religious texts, without any author, comprising the central canon of Hinduism.<ref name=jamessruti>James Lochtefeld (2002), "Shruti", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N–Z, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 9780823931798, page 645</ref> It includes the four Vedas including its four types of embedded texts - the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the early Upanishads.<ref name=wendydof>Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1988), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-1867-6, pages 2-3</ref> Of the Shrutis (Vedic corpus), the Upanishads alone are widely influential among Hindus, considered scriptures par excellence of Hinduism, and their central ideas have continued to influence its thoughts and traditions.<ref name=olivelleexcel/><ref name=wendydonigerupan>Wendy Doniger (1990), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, 1st Edition, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226618470, pages 2-3; Quote: "The Upanishads supply the basis of later Hindu philosophy; they alone of the Vedic corpus are widely known and quoted by most well-educated Hindus, and their central ideas have also become a part of the spiritual arsenal of rank-and-file Hindus."</ref>

The Smriti texts are a specific body of Hindu texts attributed to an author,<ref name="wendydof"/> are is a derivative work and is considered less authoritative than Sruti in Hinduism.<ref name=jamesmriti>James Lochtefeld (2002), "Smrti", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N–Z, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0823931798, page 656-657</ref> The Smrti literature is a vast corpus of diverse texts, and includes but is not limited to Vedāngas, the Hindu epics, the Sutras and Shastras, the texts of Hindu philosophies, the Puranas, the Kāvya or poetical literature, the Bhasyas, and numerous Nibandhas (digests) covering politics, ethics, culture, arts and society.<ref name=bilimoriasmrti>Purushottama Bilimoria (2011), The idea of Hindu law, Journal of Oriental Society of Australia, Vol. 43, pages 103-130</ref><ref name="Roy Perrett 1998 pages 16-18">Roy Perrett (1998), Hindu Ethics: A Philosophical Study, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824820855, pages 16-18</ref>

Many ancient and medieval Hindu texts were composed in Sanskrit, many others in regional Indian languages. In modern times, most ancient texts have been translated into other Indian languages and some in Western languages.<ref name=goodallix/> Prior to the start of the common era, the Hindu texts were composed orally, then memorized and transmitted orally, from one generation to next, for more than a millennia before they were written down into manuscripts.<ref name=michaelwitzel68>Michael Witzel, "Vedas and Upaniṣads", in: Flood, Gavin, ed. (2003), The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., ISBN 1-4051-3251-5, pages 68-71</ref><ref name=graham67/> This verbal tradition of preserving and transmitting Hindu texts, from one generation to next, continued into the modern era.<ref name=michaelwitzel68/><ref name=graham67>William Graham (1993), Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521448208, pages 67-77</ref>


Hindu texts sections
Intro  The Vedas  The Upanishads  Post-Vedic texts  The Bhagavad Gita  The Puranas   The Tevaram Saivite hymns   Divya Prabandha Vaishnavite hymns  Other Hindu texts  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  External links  

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{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=EngvarB |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} Hindu texts are manuscripts and historic literature related to any of the diverse traditions within Hinduism. A few texts are shared resources across these traditions and broadly considered as Hindu scriptures.<ref>Frazier, Jessica (2011), The Continuum companion to Hindu studies, London: Continuum, ISBN 978-0826499660, pages 1–15</ref><ref name=goodallix/> These include the Vedas and the Upanishads. Scholars hesitate in defining the term "Hindu scripture" given the diverse nature of Hinduism,<ref name=goodallix>Dominic Goodall (1996), Hindu Scriptures, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520207783, page ix-xliii</ref><ref name=klausscrip/> many include Bhagavad Gita and Agamas as Hindu scriptures,<ref name=goodallix/><ref name=klausscrip>Klaus Klostermaier (2007), A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791470824, pages 46-52, 76-77</ref><ref>RC Zaehner (1992), Hindu Scriptures, Penguin Random House, ISBN 978-0679410782, pages 1-11 and Preface</ref> while Dominic Goodall includes Bhagavata Purana and Yajnavalkya Smriti to the list of Hindu scriptures.<ref name=goodallix/>

There are two historic classifications of Hindu texts: Shruti – that which is heard,<ref name=jamessruti/> and Smriti – that which is remembered.<ref name=jamesmriti/> The Śruti refers to the body of most authoritative, ancient religious texts, without any author, comprising the central canon of Hinduism.<ref name=jamessruti>James Lochtefeld (2002), "Shruti", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N–Z, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 9780823931798, page 645</ref> It includes the four Vedas including its four types of embedded texts - the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the early Upanishads.<ref name=wendydof>Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1988), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-1867-6, pages 2-3</ref> Of the Shrutis (Vedic corpus), the Upanishads alone are widely influential among Hindus, considered scriptures par excellence of Hinduism, and their central ideas have continued to influence its thoughts and traditions.<ref name=olivelleexcel/><ref name=wendydonigerupan>Wendy Doniger (1990), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, 1st Edition, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226618470, pages 2-3; Quote: "The Upanishads supply the basis of later Hindu philosophy; they alone of the Vedic corpus are widely known and quoted by most well-educated Hindus, and their central ideas have also become a part of the spiritual arsenal of rank-and-file Hindus."</ref>

The Smriti texts are a specific body of Hindu texts attributed to an author,<ref name="wendydof"/> are is a derivative work and is considered less authoritative than Sruti in Hinduism.<ref name=jamesmriti>James Lochtefeld (2002), "Smrti", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N–Z, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0823931798, page 656-657</ref> The Smrti literature is a vast corpus of diverse texts, and includes but is not limited to Vedāngas, the Hindu epics, the Sutras and Shastras, the texts of Hindu philosophies, the Puranas, the Kāvya or poetical literature, the Bhasyas, and numerous Nibandhas (digests) covering politics, ethics, culture, arts and society.<ref name=bilimoriasmrti>Purushottama Bilimoria (2011), The idea of Hindu law, Journal of Oriental Society of Australia, Vol. 43, pages 103-130</ref><ref name="Roy Perrett 1998 pages 16-18">Roy Perrett (1998), Hindu Ethics: A Philosophical Study, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824820855, pages 16-18</ref>

Many ancient and medieval Hindu texts were composed in Sanskrit, many others in regional Indian languages. In modern times, most ancient texts have been translated into other Indian languages and some in Western languages.<ref name=goodallix/> Prior to the start of the common era, the Hindu texts were composed orally, then memorized and transmitted orally, from one generation to next, for more than a millennia before they were written down into manuscripts.<ref name=michaelwitzel68>Michael Witzel, "Vedas and Upaniṣads", in: Flood, Gavin, ed. (2003), The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., ISBN 1-4051-3251-5, pages 68-71</ref><ref name=graham67/> This verbal tradition of preserving and transmitting Hindu texts, from one generation to next, continued into the modern era.<ref name=michaelwitzel68/><ref name=graham67>William Graham (1993), Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521448208, pages 67-77</ref>


Hindu texts sections
Intro  The Vedas  The Upanishads  Post-Vedic texts  The Bhagavad Gita  The Puranas   The Tevaram Saivite hymns   Divya Prabandha Vaishnavite hymns  Other Hindu texts  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  External links  

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