::IPA for Latin


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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Classical Latin and Ecclesiastical Latin pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. See Latin spelling and pronunciation for a more thorough look at the sounds of Latin, and see Latin regional pronunciation for information on the traditional pronunciation systems used in Europe.

Consonants<ref name="geminated">Geminate (double) consonants are written with a doubled letter, except for /jj/ and /ww/: anus /ˈa.nʊs/, annus /ˈan.nʊs/. In IPA, they may be written as double or followed by the length sign: /nn/ or /nː/.</ref>
IPA Latin
Examples English approximation
Classical Ecclesiastical
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]] b bellum bean
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]] d decem deck
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]] z zēlus adze
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ʒ]]<ref name="palatalized"/> g gēns giant
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]] f faciō fan
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ɡ]] g gravis gear
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]]<ref>Generally silent. Sometimes medial h was pronounced [[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}|k]]] in Ecclesiastical Latin (e.g. mihi), whereas it was silent in Classical Latin.</ref> h habeō her; hour
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]]<ref name="semivowel">In Classical Latin, i u represented the vowels /ɪ iː and /ʊ uː/, and the consonants /j/, and /w/. Between consonants, and when marked with macrons or breves, i u are vowels. In some spelling systems, /j w/ are written with the letters j v. In other cases, consult a dictionary.
In Ecclesiastical Latin, i represents the vowel /i/, j represents the consonant /j/, u represents the vowel /u/ or /w/, and v represents /v/ in Ecclesiastical Latin.
  • In Classical Latin, consonantal i between vowels stands for doubled /jj/: cuius [ˈkujjʊs]. The vowel before the double /jj/ is short, though it is sometimes marked with a macron. When a prefix is added to a word beginning in /j/, the /j/ is usually single: trā-iectum [traː.jɛkˈtũː].
  • In Classical Latin, /w/ was doubled between vowels only in Greek words, such as Euander /ɛwˈwan.dɛr/.
  • In Ecclesiastical Latin, consonantal v is pronounced as a fricative /v/, except in the combinations gu su qu, which are pronounced /gw sw kw/.</ref>
i iūs yodel
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]] c, k caput scar
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ʰ]] ch charta car
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ʷ]]<ref>The labialized velar /kʷ/ was pronounced as labio-palatalized [kᶣ] before the vowels /ɪ, iː, ɛ, eː/, as in qvī [kᶣiː].</ref> qu quattuor squash
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]] l locus leave
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ɫ]]<ref>/l/ had two allophones in Classical Latin: velarized [[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}|ɫ]]] at the end of a word or before another consonant, plain [[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}|l]]] in other positions.</ref> l multus all
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]] m<ref name="nasalization">In Classical Latin, a vowel and m at the end of a word, or a vowel and n before n or f represents a long nasal vowel.</ref> manus man
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]] n<ref name="nasalization" /> noster next
ŋ longus<ref>In both Classical and Ecclesiastical Latin, /n/ is pronounced as [[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}|ŋ]]] before /k, ɡ/.
The digraph gn is pronounced as [ŋn] in Classical Latin, but [ɲ] in Ecclesiastical Latin.</ref>
g ignis
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ɲ]] gn ignis onion
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]] p pax span
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ʰ]] ph pharetra pan
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]] r regiō trilled or tapped r
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]]<ref>In Ecclesiastical Latin, /s/ between vowels is often pronounced as [[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}|z]]].</ref> s sum send
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ʃ]]<ref name="palatalized" /> sc scindō sharp
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]] t tabula stone
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ʰ]] th thalamus tone; stone
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]]<ref name="palatalized" /> t port Botswana
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ʃ]]<ref name="palatalized">In Classical Latin, c g t are always pronounced hard, as /k g t/.
In Ecclesiastical Latin, c g sc are pronounced as soft [tʃ dʒ ʃ] before the front vowels e i y ae oe, and ti before a vowel is pronounced [tsi].</ref>
c centum change
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]] u<ref name="semivowel" /> uerbum west
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]] v vest
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]] z zēlus zest
s miserere
Vowels<ref name="long">Classical Latin had long and short vowels. If vowel length is marked, long vowels are marked with macrons, ā, ē, ī, ō, ū, ȳ, and short vowels with breves ă, ĕ, ĭ, ŏ, ŭ, y̆. Ecclesiastical Latin does not distinguish between long and short vowels.</ref>
IPA Latin
Examples English approximation
Classical Ecclesiastical
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]] a charta bra (but shorter)
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ː]] ā fāta father; bra
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ɛ]] e ae/æ
est met
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ː]] ē <ref name="long-e">There is some scholarly debate over whether Ecclesiastical Latin distinguishes between long and short e. However, most sources now indicate the use of /ɛ/ for both.</ref> sē similar to made
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ɪ]] i timida<ref name=semivowel/> mit
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]] i meet
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ː]] ī dī need
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ɔ]] o omnis caught
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ː]] ō nōlō similar to code (American English)
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ʊ]] u nunc<ref name=semivowel/> put
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}]] u moose
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ː]] ū lūna food
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ʏ]] y cyclus cute
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ː]] ȳ cȳma cued
ae̯ ae laetus sigh; sed
oe̯ oe poena boy; e in neighbor
au̯ au causa cow
eu̯ eu seu eh-oo
ui̯ ui cui oo-ee
◌̃ː Vm
monstrum long nasal vowels<ref name="nasalization" />
IPA Examples
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}ˈ]] Gāius
Stress (placed before the stressed syllable)<ref>In words of two syllables, the stress is on the first syllable. In words of three or more syllables, the stress is on the penultimate syllable if this is heavy, otherwise on the antepenultimate syllable. There are some exceptions to this rule, mainly due to contraction or elision.</ref>
[[{{#invoke:IPA symbol|main}}.]] Syllable marker, generally used between vowels in hiatus

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