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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}};<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> German: [ˈɡeɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡəl]; August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher of the late Enlightenment. He achieved wide renown in his day and, while primarily influential within the continental tradition of philosophy, has become increasingly influential in the analytic tradition as well.<ref>Redding, Paul, "Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2014/entries/hegel/>.</ref> Although he remains a divisive figure, his canonical stature within Western philosophy is universally recognized.<ref>Any introductory text to the history of philosophy written in the past century.</ref>

Hegel's principal achievement is his development of a distinctive articulation of idealism sometimes termed "absolute idealism,"<ref>This term is actually quite rare in Hegel's writings. It does not occur anywhere in The Science of Logic (though he comes close in a remark at p.124 of the [2010] di Giovanni translation, GW 21.142). In the Encyclopedia presentation of his logic it can be found only at §45R. Greraets, Suchting and Harris note in the introduction to their translation of this later text that the term is more strongly associated with English movement in that later part of the 19th century (Hackett: 1991, xiii).</ref> in which the dualisms of, for instance, mind and nature and subject and object are overcome. His philosophy of spirit conceptually integrates psychology, the state, history, art, religion, and philosophy. His account of the master–slave dialectic has been highly influential, especially in 20th-century France.<ref>Overwhelmingly due to Alexander Kojeve's influential lectures published as Introduction ala lecture de Hegel (Paris, 1947), selections translated into English by James Nichols as Introduction to the Reading of Hegel (New York, 1969). See, for instance, Aimé Patri, "Dialecdque du Maître et de l'Bclave," Le Contrat Social,V, No. a (July–August 196r), 234, cited in Editor's Introduction (vii) on the extent of their influence.</ref> Of special importance is his concept of spirit (Geist: sometimes also translated as "mind") as the historical manifestation of the logical concept and the "sublation" (Aufhebung: integration without elimination or reduction) of seemingly contradictory or opposing factors; examples include the apparent opposition between nature and freedom and between immanence and transcendence. Hegel has been seen in the 21st century as the originator of the thesis, antithesis, synthesis triad; however this originated with Johann Fichte.

Hegel has influenced many thinkers and writers whose own positions vary widely.<ref>"One of the few things on which the analysts, pragmatists, and existentialists agree with the dialectical theologians is that Hegel is to be repudiated: their attitude toward Kant, Aristotle, Plato, and the other great philosophers is not at all unanimous even within each movement; but opposition to Hegel is part of the platform of all four, and of the Marxists, too." Walter Kaufmann, "The Hegel Myth and Its Method" in From Shakespeare to Existentialism: Studies in Poetry, Religion, and Philosophy, Beacon Press, Boston, 1959 (pp. 88–119).</ref> Karl Barth described Hegel as a "Protestant Aquinas,"<ref>"Why did Hegel not become for the Protestant world something similar to what Thomas Aquinas was for Roman Catholicism?" (Karl Barth, Protestant Thought From Rousseau To Ritschl: Being The Translation Of Eleven Chapters Of Die Protestantische Theologie Im 19. Jahrhundert, 268 Harper, 1959).</ref> while Maurice Merleau-Ponty wrote that "All the great philosophical ideas of the past century—the philosophies of Marx and Nietzsche, phenomenology, German existentialism, and psychoanalysis—had their beginnings in Hegel."<ref>Maurice Merleau-Ponty (trans. Herbert L. and Patricia Allen Dreyfus), Sense and Nonsense, Northwestern University Press, 1964, p. 63.</ref>


Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel sections
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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}};<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> German: [ˈɡeɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡəl]; August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher of the late Enlightenment. He achieved wide renown in his day and, while primarily influential within the continental tradition of philosophy, has become increasingly influential in the analytic tradition as well.<ref>Redding, Paul, "Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2014/entries/hegel/>.</ref> Although he remains a divisive figure, his canonical stature within Western philosophy is universally recognized.<ref>Any introductory text to the history of philosophy written in the past century.</ref>

Hegel's principal achievement is his development of a distinctive articulation of idealism sometimes termed "absolute idealism,"<ref>This term is actually quite rare in Hegel's writings. It does not occur anywhere in The Science of Logic (though he comes close in a remark at p.124 of the [2010] di Giovanni translation, GW 21.142). In the Encyclopedia presentation of his logic it can be found only at §45R. Greraets, Suchting and Harris note in the introduction to their translation of this later text that the term is more strongly associated with English movement in that later part of the 19th century (Hackett: 1991, xiii).</ref> in which the dualisms of, for instance, mind and nature and subject and object are overcome. His philosophy of spirit conceptually integrates psychology, the state, history, art, religion, and philosophy. His account of the master–slave dialectic has been highly influential, especially in 20th-century France.<ref>Overwhelmingly due to Alexander Kojeve's influential lectures published as Introduction ala lecture de Hegel (Paris, 1947), selections translated into English by James Nichols as Introduction to the Reading of Hegel (New York, 1969). See, for instance, Aimé Patri, "Dialecdque du Maître et de l'Bclave," Le Contrat Social,V, No. a (July–August 196r), 234, cited in Editor's Introduction (vii) on the extent of their influence.</ref> Of special importance is his concept of spirit (Geist: sometimes also translated as "mind") as the historical manifestation of the logical concept and the "sublation" (Aufhebung: integration without elimination or reduction) of seemingly contradictory or opposing factors; examples include the apparent opposition between nature and freedom and between immanence and transcendence. Hegel has been seen in the 21st century as the originator of the thesis, antithesis, synthesis triad; however this originated with Johann Fichte.

Hegel has influenced many thinkers and writers whose own positions vary widely.<ref>"One of the few things on which the analysts, pragmatists, and existentialists agree with the dialectical theologians is that Hegel is to be repudiated: their attitude toward Kant, Aristotle, Plato, and the other great philosophers is not at all unanimous even within each movement; but opposition to Hegel is part of the platform of all four, and of the Marxists, too." Walter Kaufmann, "The Hegel Myth and Its Method" in From Shakespeare to Existentialism: Studies in Poetry, Religion, and Philosophy, Beacon Press, Boston, 1959 (pp. 88–119).</ref> Karl Barth described Hegel as a "Protestant Aquinas,"<ref>"Why did Hegel not become for the Protestant world something similar to what Thomas Aquinas was for Roman Catholicism?" (Karl Barth, Protestant Thought From Rousseau To Ritschl: Being The Translation Of Eleven Chapters Of Die Protestantische Theologie Im 19. Jahrhundert, 268 Harper, 1959).</ref> while Maurice Merleau-Ponty wrote that "All the great philosophical ideas of the past century—the philosophies of Marx and Nietzsche, phenomenology, German existentialism, and psychoanalysis—had their beginnings in Hegel."<ref>Maurice Merleau-Ponty (trans. Herbert L. and Patricia Allen Dreyfus), Sense and Nonsense, Northwestern University Press, 1964, p. 63.</ref>


Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel sections
Intro  Life   Thought    Works    Legacy    Selected works    See also    Notes   Further reading   External links   

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