::Hardcore punk


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Hardcore punk (usually referred to simply as hardcore) is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s. Hardcore punk music is generally faster, heavier, and more abrasive than regular punk rock.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> The origin of the term "hardcore punk" is uncertain. The Vancouver-based band D.O.A. may have helped to popularize the term with the title of their 1981 album, Hardcore '81.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Hardcore historian Steven Blush said that the term "hardcore" is also a reference to the sense of being "fed up" with the existing punk and new wave music.<ref name=""> p. 9</ref> Blush also states that the term refers to "an extreme: the absolute most Punk."<ref>Steven Blush. American Hardcore: a Tribal History. Feral House, 2001. p. 18</ref>

The roots of hardcore trace back to San Francisco and Southern California.<ref name=PunkBoys/> The former arose as a reaction against the dominant hippie scene and was inspired by the New York punk rock and the early protopunk scene. New York punk rock had a harder-edged sound than its San Francisco counterpart, featuring anti-art expressions of masculine anger, energy and subversive humor. Hardcore punk generally disavows commercialism, the major music industry and "anything similar to the characteristics of mainstream rock"<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> and deals with social and political subjects.

Hardcore sprouted underground scenes across the United States in the early 1980s, particularly in Washington, D.C., New York, New Jersey, and Boston—as well as in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom. Hardcore has spawned the straight edge movement and its associated submovements, hardline and youth crew. Hardcore was heavily involved with the rise of the independent record labels in the 1980s, and with the DIY ethics in underground music scenes. It has influenced a number of music genres which have experienced mainstream success, such as alternative rock, grunge, alternative metal, metalcore, thrash metal, post-hardcore and certain elements of hip hop.

While traditional hardcore has never experienced mainstream commercial success, some of its early pioneers have garnered appreciation over time. Black Flag's Damaged, Minutemen's Double Nickels on the Dime and Hüsker Dü's New Day Rising were included in Rolling Stone's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time in 2003 and Dead Kennedys have seen one of their albums reach gold status over a period of 25 years.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> In 2011, Rolling Stone writer David Fricke placed Greg Ginn of Black Flag 99th place in his 100 Greatest Guitarists list. Although the music genre started in English-speaking western countries, notable hardcore scenes have existed in Italy, Brazil, Japan, Europe and the Middle East.

Hardcore punk sections
Intro  Characteristics  Hardcore dancing  Clothing style  Zines  History  Hardcore punk subgenres  Influence on other genres  See also  References  

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