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Federal Republic of Germany
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Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: Deutschlandlied<ref name="CIA">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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Location of  Germany{{#invoke:String
Location of  Germany{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(dark green)

– in Europe{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(green & dark grey)
– in the European Union{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Berlin
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Official languages German[1]Unknown extension tag "ref"
Demonym German
Government Federal parliamentary constitutional republic
 -  President Joachim Gauck
 -  President of the Bundestag Norbert Lammert
 -  Chancellor Angela Merkel
Legislature
 -  Upper house Bundesrat
 -  Lower house Bundestag
Formation
 -  Holy Roman Empire 2 February 962 
 -  German Confederation 8 June 1815 
 -  German Empire 18 January 1871 
 -  Federal Republic 23 May 1949 
 -  EEC FoundationUnknown extension tag "ref" 1 January 1958 
 -  Reunification 3 October 1990 
Area
 -  Total 357,168 km2 (63rd)
137,847 sq mi
Population
 -  2014 estimate 81,083,600<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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 -  Density 226/km2 (58th)
583/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $3.842 trillion<ref name=IMF>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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}}</ref> (5th)
 -  Per capita $47,033<ref name=IMF/> (20th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $3.371 trillion<ref name=IMF/> (4th)
 -  Per capita $41,267<ref name=IMF/> (20th)
Gini (2013)28.3<ref name=eurogini>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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low
HDI (2013)Steady 0.911<ref name="HDI">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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very high · 6th
Currency Euro () (EUR)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Calling code 49
ISO 3166 code DE
Internet TLD .de and .eu

Germany ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; German: Deutschland{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} [ˈdɔʏtʃlant]), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, About this sound listen ),Unknown extension tag "ref"<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe. It includes 16 constituent states and covers an area of {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} with a largely temperate seasonal climate. Its capital and largest city is Berlin. With 81 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state in the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular migration destination in the world.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Various Germanic tribes have occupied northern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before 100 CE. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire.<ref>The Latin name Sacrum Imperium (Holy Empire) is documented as far back as 1157. The Latin name Sacrum Romanum Imperium (Holy Roman Empire) was first documented in 1254. The full name "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" (Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation) dates back to the 15th century.
{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation.

The rise of Pan-Germanism inside the German Confederation resulted in the unification of most of the German states in 1871 into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic. The establishment of the Third Reich in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After 1945, Germany split into two states, East Germany and West Germany. In 1990, the country was reunified.<ref name="SLyE6YJEn0C page 52">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

In the 21st century, Germany is a great power and has the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the fifth-largest by PPP. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods. It is a developed country with a very high standard of living, and it maintains a comprehensive social security, a universal health care system and diverse environmental protection laws.

Germany was a founding member of the European Communities in 1957, which became the European Union in 1993. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential artists, philosophers, musicians, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.

Etymology

The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> The German term Deutschland, originally diutisciu land ("the German lands") is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" (i.e. belonging to the diot or diota "people"), originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular" (see also the Latinised form Theodiscus), derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people".<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }} (for diutisc) {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }} (for diot)</ref>


Germany sections
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