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Relief::Geography of Colombia

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Relief map of Colombia

The Andean range is located in Colombia from the southwest (Ecuador border) toward the northeast (Venezuela border) and is divided in the Colombian Massif (Macizo Colombiano) in three ranges (East Andes, Central Andes and West Andes) that form two long valleys, Magdalena and Cauca follow by the rivers of the same name.

The eastern half of Colombia, comprising more than half its territory, is plain and composed by savanna and rainforest, crossed by rivers belonging to the Amazon and Orinoco basins. The northern part, called "Los Llanos" is a savanna region, mostly in the Orinoco basin (therefore called also Orinoquía). The southern part is covered by the Amazon rain forest and belongs mostly to the Amazon basin. It is usually called Amazonía.

At the north and west of the Andes range there are some coastal plains. The Caribbean plains at the north and the Pacific plains at the west.

Colombian Pacific Plains are among the most rainy parts in the world, chiefly at the north (Chocó).

The highest mountain in Colombia is not in the Andes but in the Caribbean plain: Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta with its highest points named Pico Cristobal Colon (5775 m) and Pico Simon Bolivar (same elevation). Other mountains in the Caribbean plain include the Montes de María and the Serranía de San Lucas.

In the Pacific Plains there are other mountain formations, chiefly the Serranía del Darién and the Serranía del Baudó.

In the eastern Region, there is the Serranía de la Macarena and there are formations belonging to the Guyana Shield.


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