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Sigmund Freud ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}};<ref>"Freud". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.</ref> German pronunciation: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏ̯t]; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist, now known as the father of psychoanalysis. Freud qualified as a doctor of medicine at the University of Vienna in 1881,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> and then carried out research into cerebral palsy, aphasia and microscopic neuroanatomy at the Vienna General Hospital.<ref>Eric R. Kandel The Age of Insight: The Quest to Understand the Unconscious in Art, Mind and Brain, from Vienna 1900 to the Present. New York: Random House 2012, pp. 45-46.</ref> Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902.<ref>Gay 2006, pp. 136-7</ref>

In creating psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst,<ref name="Systems of Psychotherapy" /> Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory.<ref>Jones, Ernest (1949) What is Psychoanalysis ? London: Allen & Unwin. p. 47.</ref> His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the mechanisms of repression as well as for elaboration of his theory of the unconscious as an agency disruptive of conscious states of mind.<ref>Mannoni, Octave, Freud: The Theory of the Unconscious, London: NLB 1971, p. 49-51</ref> Freud postulated the existence of libido, an energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, and a death drive, the source of compulsive repetition, hate, aggression and neurotic guilt.<ref>Mannoni, Octave, Freud: The Theory of the Unconscious, London: NLB 1971, pp. 146-47</ref> In his later work Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture.

Psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy, and across the humanities. As such, it continues to generate extensive and highly contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, and whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause.<ref>For its efficacy and the influence of psychoanalysis on psychiatry and psychotherapy, see The Challenge to Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy, Chapter 9, Psychoanalysis and Psychiatry: A Changing Relationship by Robert Michels, 1999 and Tom Burns Our Necessary Shadow: The Nature and Meaning of Psychiatry London: Allen Lane 2013 p. 96-97.

  • For the influence on psychology, see The Psychologist, December 2000
  • For the influence of psychoanalysis in the humanities, see J. Forrester The Seductions of Psychoanalysis Cambridge University Press 1990, pp. 2-3.
  • For the debate on efficacy, see Fisher, S. and Greenberg, R. P., Freud Scientifically Reappraised: Testing the Theories and Therapy, New York: John Wiley, 1996, pp. 193-217.
  • For the debate on the scientific status of psychoanalysis see Stevens, R. 1985 Freud and Psychoanalysis Milton Keynes: Open University Press, pp. 91-116.
  • For the debate on psychoanalysis and feminism, see Appignanesi, Lisa & Forrester, John. Freud's Women. London: Penguin Books, 1992, pp. 455-474</ref> Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture. In the words of W. H. Auden's poetic tribute, by the time of Freud's death in 1939, he had become "a whole climate of opinion / under whom we conduct our different lives".<ref>Auden 1935
  • Also see Alexander, Sam "In Memory of Sigmund Freud" (undated) and Thurschwell, P. Sigmund Freud London: Routledge 2009, p. 1</ref>

Sigmund Freud sections
Intro  Biography  Ideas  Legacy  Works  Correspondence  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  External links  

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{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}}

Sigmund Freud ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}};<ref>"Freud". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.</ref> German pronunciation: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏ̯t]; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist, now known as the father of psychoanalysis. Freud qualified as a doctor of medicine at the University of Vienna in 1881,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> and then carried out research into cerebral palsy, aphasia and microscopic neuroanatomy at the Vienna General Hospital.<ref>Eric R. Kandel The Age of Insight: The Quest to Understand the Unconscious in Art, Mind and Brain, from Vienna 1900 to the Present. New York: Random House 2012, pp. 45-46.</ref> Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902.<ref>Gay 2006, pp. 136-7</ref>

In creating psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst,<ref name="Systems of Psychotherapy" /> Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory.<ref>Jones, Ernest (1949) What is Psychoanalysis ? London: Allen & Unwin. p. 47.</ref> His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the mechanisms of repression as well as for elaboration of his theory of the unconscious as an agency disruptive of conscious states of mind.<ref>Mannoni, Octave, Freud: The Theory of the Unconscious, London: NLB 1971, p. 49-51</ref> Freud postulated the existence of libido, an energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, and a death drive, the source of compulsive repetition, hate, aggression and neurotic guilt.<ref>Mannoni, Octave, Freud: The Theory of the Unconscious, London: NLB 1971, pp. 146-47</ref> In his later work Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture.

Psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy, and across the humanities. As such, it continues to generate extensive and highly contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, and whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause.<ref>For its efficacy and the influence of psychoanalysis on psychiatry and psychotherapy, see The Challenge to Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy, Chapter 9, Psychoanalysis and Psychiatry: A Changing Relationship by Robert Michels, 1999 and Tom Burns Our Necessary Shadow: The Nature and Meaning of Psychiatry London: Allen Lane 2013 p. 96-97.

  • For the influence on psychology, see The Psychologist, December 2000
  • For the influence of psychoanalysis in the humanities, see J. Forrester The Seductions of Psychoanalysis Cambridge University Press 1990, pp. 2-3.
  • For the debate on efficacy, see Fisher, S. and Greenberg, R. P., Freud Scientifically Reappraised: Testing the Theories and Therapy, New York: John Wiley, 1996, pp. 193-217.
  • For the debate on the scientific status of psychoanalysis see Stevens, R. 1985 Freud and Psychoanalysis Milton Keynes: Open University Press, pp. 91-116.
  • For the debate on psychoanalysis and feminism, see Appignanesi, Lisa & Forrester, John. Freud's Women. London: Penguin Books, 1992, pp. 455-474</ref> Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture. In the words of W. H. Auden's poetic tribute, by the time of Freud's death in 1939, he had become "a whole climate of opinion / under whom we conduct our different lives".<ref>Auden 1935
  • Also see Alexander, Sam "In Memory of Sigmund Freud" (undated) and Thurschwell, P. Sigmund Freud London: Routledge 2009, p. 1</ref>

Sigmund Freud sections
Intro  Biography  Ideas  Legacy  Works  Correspondence  See also  Notes  References  Further reading  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Biography
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