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::Fizzle (nuclear test)

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Yield::nuclear    Nuclear::fission    Fizzle::weapons    Weapon::fusion    Device::tower    Testing::fizzles

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In nuclear weapons, a fizzle occurs when the testing of a nuclear bomb grossly fails to meet its expected yield.
If two pieces of subcritical material are not brought together fast enough, nuclear predetonation (fizzle) can occur, whereby a very small explosion will blow the bulk of the material apart.
The reason(s) for the failure can be linked to improper bomb design, poor construction, or lack of expertise.<ref name="SP1">Staff Writer. "NBC Weapons: North Korean Fizzle Bomb." Strategy Page. Retrieved on 2008-05-04.</ref><ref name="AAAS1"> Earl Lane. "Nuclear Experts Assess the Threat of a "Backyard Bomb”." American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved on 2008-05-04. {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B=

{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[dead link] }}</ref> All countries that have had a nuclear weapons testing program have experienced some fizzles.<ref name="BBC1">Meirion Jones." A short history of fizzles." BBC News. Retrieved on 2008-05-04.</ref> A fizzle can spread radioactive material throughout the surrounding area, involve a partial fission reaction of the fissile material, or both.<ref name="EUROPSIS1">Theodore E. Liolios." The Effects of Nuclear Terrorism: Fizzles." (PDF) European Program on Science and International Security. Retrieved on 2008-05-04.</ref> For practical purposes, a fizzle can still have considerable explosive yield when compared to conventional weapons.

In multistage fission-fusion weapons, full yield of the fission primary that fails to initiate fusion ignition in the fusion secondary is also considered a "fizzle," as the weapon failed to reach its design yield despite the fission primary working correctly. Such fizzles can have very high yields, as in the case of Castle Koon, where a device with a 1 megaton design yield underwent a fusion fizzle, but its primary still generated a yield of 110 kilotons.


Fizzle (nuclear test) sections
Intro  Fusion boosting  Nuclear fission tests considered to be fizzles  Nuclear Fusion tests that fizzled  Terrorist concerns  See also  References  External links  

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