Sperm::journal    Plants::title    Pollen::first    Pages::through    Volume::animals    Issue::which

History In 1784, Spallanzani established the need of interaction between the female's ovum and male's semen to form a zygote. Oscar Hertwig (1876), in Germany, described the fusion of nuclei of spermatozoa and of ova from sea urchin.<ref>Birkhead, T.R. & Montgomerie, R. (2009). Three centuries of sperm research, pp 1-42 in: Birkhead, T. R., Hosken, D. J. & Pitnick, S. Sperm Biology: An Evolutionary Perspective. Elsevier/Academic Press, Amsterdam. 642 pp., [1].</ref>

Fertilisation sections
Intro  History  Fertilization in plants   Fertilisation in animals   Fertilization in fungi  Fertilization in protists   Fertilisation and genetic recombination   Parthenogenesis  Allogamy and autogamy  Other variants of bisexual reproduction  Benefits of cross-fertilization  See also  References  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Fertilization in plants