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England
Flag
Anthem: Various
Predominantly "God Save the Queen"
Location of  England{{#invoke:String
Location of  England{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(dark green)

– in Europe{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(green & dark grey)
– in the United Kingdom{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(green)

Status Country
Capital
and largest city
London
{{#invoke:Coordinates|coord}}{{#coordinates:51|30|N|0|7|W|type:city||

| |name=

}}
National language English
Regional languages Cornish
Ethnic groups (2011) {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
Religion Church of England
Demonym English
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Government Part of a constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch Elizabeth II
Establishment
 -  Anglo-Saxon settlement 5th–6th century 
 -  Unification 10th century 
 -  Union with Scotland 1 May 1707 
Area
 -  Land 130,279 km2<ref name=ONSCOUNTRYPROFILES>Region and Country Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles, October 2013, ONS. Retrieved 9 August 2015.</ref>
50,301 sq mi
Population
 -  2011 census 53,012,456
 -  Density 407/km2
1,054.1/sq mi
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
 -  Total $2.68 trillion
 -  Per capita $50,566
Currency Pound sterling (GBP)
Time zone GMT (UTC​)
 -  Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Drives on the left
Calling code +44
Patron saint Saint George

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England {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers much of the central and southern part of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight.

The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

England's terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north (for example, the mountainous Lake District, Pennines, and Yorkshire Dales) and in the south west (for example, Dartmoor and the Cotswolds). The capital of England is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures.<ref group= "nb">According to the European Statistical Agency, London is the largest Larger Urban Zone which uses conurbations and areas of high population as its definition. A ranking of population within municipal boundaries places London first. However, the University of Avignon in France claims that Paris is first and London second when including the whole urban area and hinterland, that is the outlying cities as well.</ref> England's population of over 53 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, largely concentrated around London, the South East, and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century.<ref name=2011census>2011 Census - Population and household estimates for England and Wales, March 2011. Accessed 31 May 2013.</ref>

The Kingdom of England – which after 1284 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain.<ref>William E. Burns, A Brief History of Great Britain, p. xxi</ref><ref>Acts of Union 1707 parliament.uk. Retrieved 27 January 2011</ref> In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Toponymy{{safesubst:#invoke:anchor|main}}

The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles".<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea.<ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}.</ref> The earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late ninth century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was then used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", and it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was then part of the English kingdom of Northumbria. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years later the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used.<ref name="Fordham">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars; it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe that was less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons.<ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref> In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England (Sasunn);<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> similarly, the Welsh name for the English language is "Saesneg".

An alternative name for England is Albion. The name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo:<ref name="massey">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}.</ref> "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth. In it are two very large islands called Britannia; these are Albion and Ierne".<ref name="massey" /><ref name="ArOntheCosmos">Greek "... ἐν τούτῳ γε μὴν νῆσοι μέγιστοι τυγχάνουσιν οὖσαι δύο, Βρεττανικαὶ λεγόμεναι, Ἀλβίων καὶ Ἰέρνη, ...", transliteration "... en toutoi ge men nesoi megistoi tynchanousin ousai dyo, Brettanikai legomenai, Albion kai Ierne, ..."{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, translation "... There are two very large islands in it, called the British Isles, Albion and Ierne; ..."; {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }} at the Open Library Project.DjVu</ref> But modern scholar consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written later in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion (Ἀλβίων) or insula Albionum has two possible origins. It either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover, the only part of Britain visible from the European Continent,<ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}.</ref> or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones"<ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}.</ref> in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, that is attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima<ref>Avienus' Ora Maritima, verses 111-112, i.e. eamque late gens Hiernorum colit; propinqua rursus insula Albionum patet.</ref> to which the former presumably served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity.<ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}.</ref> Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend.


England sections
Intro  History  Governance  Geography  Economy  Healthcare  Demography  Education  Culture  Sports  National symbols  See also  Notes  References  External links  

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