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An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.<ref name = Brit>"Election (political science)," Encyclpoedia Britanica Online. Retrieved 18 August 2009</ref> Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century.<ref name = Brit/> Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. This process is also used in many other private and business organizations, from clubs to voluntary associations and corporations.

The universal use of elections as a tool for selecting representatives in modern representative democracies is in contrast with the practice in the democratic archetype, ancient Athens, where the Elections were considered an oligarchic institution and most political offices were filled using sortition, also known as allotment, by which officeholders were chosen by lot.<ref>Headlam, James Wycliffe (1891). Election by Lot at Athens. p. 12.</ref>

Electoral reform describes the process of introducing fair electoral systems where they are not in place, or improving the fairness or effectiveness of existing systems. Psephology is the study of results and other statistics relating to elections (especially with a view to predicting future results).

To elect means "to choose or make a decision", and so sometimes other forms of ballot such as referendums are referred to as elections, especially in the United States. {{#invoke:Sidebar|sidebar}}

Election sections
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