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Arab Republic of Egypt
{{safesubst:#invoke:Separated entries|br}}
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: Bilady, Bilady, Bilady
My country, my country, my country
and largest city

| |name=

Official languages Arabic[a]
National language Egyptian Arabic
Demonym Egyptian
Government Unitary semi-presidential
 -  President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
 -  Prime Minister Sherif Ismail
Legislature Legislation by presidential decree (Temporarily until the House of Representatives is elected)
 -  Unification of Upper
and Lower Egypt

|CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web

c. 3150 BC 
 -  Muhammad Ali Dynasty inaugurated 9 July 1805<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


 -  Independence from
the United Kingdom
28 February 1922 
 -  Republic declared 18 June 1953 
 -  Revolution Day 23 July 1952 
 -  Current Constitution 18 January 2014 
 -  Total 1,010,407.87 <ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


}}</ref> km2 (30th)
387,048 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 0.632
 -  2015 estimate 94,817,000<ref name="popclock">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


}}</ref> (15th)
 -  2006 census 72,798,000<ref name="pop1882-2006"/>
 -  Density 84/km2 (126th)
218/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total {{{1}}} (24th)
 -  Per capita $11,194<ref name=imf2/> (100th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total {{{1}}} (34th)
 -  Per capita $3,724<ref name=imf3/> (115th)
Gini (2008)30.8<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


HDI (2013)Decrease 0.682<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


medium · 110th
Currency Egyptian pound (EGP)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Calling code +20
ISO 3166 code EG
Internet TLD {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
a. ^ Literary Arabic is the sole official language.<ref name="Provisional Constitution"/> Egyptian Arabic is the national spoken language. Other dialects and minority languages are spoken regionally.
b. "Among the peoples of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice. In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation".<ref>name="USDept of State/Egypt"</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


}}</ref> Arthur Goldschmidt Jr.

Egypt ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; Arabic: مِصر‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} Miṣr, Egyptian Arabic: مَصر{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} Maṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. It is the world's only contiguous Eurafrasian nation and most of Egypt's territory of {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} lies within the Nile Valley. It is a Mediterranean country and is bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.

Egypt has one of the longest histories of any modern country, arising in the tenth millennium BC as one of the world's first nation states.<ref>Midant-Reynes, Béatrix. The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Kings. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.</ref> Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government in history. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of archaeological study and popular interest worldwide. Egypt's rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, having endured and at times assimilated various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman, and European. Although Christianised during the common era, it was subsequently Islamised due to the Islamic conquests of the 7th century.

With over 89 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa and the Arab World, the third-most populous in Africa (after Nigeria and Ethiopia), and the fifteenth-most populous in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}}, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.

Modern Egypt is considered to be a regional and middle power, with significant cultural, political, and military influence in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world.<ref>Andrew F. Cooper, Agata Antkiewicz and Timothy M. Shaw, 'Lessons from/for BRICSAM about South-North Relations at the Start of the 21st Century: Economic Size Trumps All Else?', International Studies Review, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Winter, 2007), pp. 675, 687.</ref> Its economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, with sectors such as tourism, agriculture, industry and services at almost equal production levels. In 2011, longtime President Hosni Mubarak stepped down amid mass protests. Later elections saw the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood, which was ousted by the army a year later amid mass protests.


The English name Egypt is derived from the Ancient Greek Aígyptos (Αἴγυπτος{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}), via Middle French Egypte and Latin Aegyptus{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}. It is reflected in early Greek Linear B tablets as a-ku-pi-ti-yo. The adjective aigýpti-, aigýptios was borrowed into Coptic as gyptios, and from there into Arabic as qubṭī, back formed into قبط{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} qubṭ, whence English Copt. The Greek forms were borrowed from Late Egyptian (Amarna) Hikuptah "Memphis", a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name Hwt-ka-Ptah (ḥwt-k-ptḥ), meaning "home of the ka (soul) of Ptah", the name of a temple to the god Ptah at Memphis.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Strabo attributed the word to a folk etymology in which Aígyptos (Αἴγυπτος{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}) evolved as a compound from Aigaiou huptiōs (Aἰγαίου ὑπτίως{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}), meaning "below the Aegean".

Miṣr (IPA: [mi̠sˤr] or Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [mesˤɾ]; Arabic: مِصر‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}) is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while Maṣr (IPA: [mɑsˤɾ]; Egyptian Arabic: مَصر{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}) is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew

  1. REDIRECT (Mitzráyim).<ref>The ending of the Hebrew form is either a dual or an ending identical to the dual in form (perhaps a locative), and this has sometimes been taken as referring to the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt. However, the application of the (possibly) "dual" ending to some toponyms and other words, a development peculiar to Hebrew, does not in fact imply any "two-ness" about the place. The ending is found, for example, in the Hebrew words for such single entities as "water" (מַיִם), "noon" (צָהֳרַיִם), "sky/heaven" (שָׁמַיִם), and in the qere – but not the original ketiv – of "Jerusalem" (ירושל[י]ם). It should also be noted that the dual ending – which may or may not be what the -áyim in Mitzráyim actually represents – was available to other Semitic languages, such as Arabic, but was not applied to Egypt. See inter alia Aaron Demsky ("Hebrew Names in the Dual Form and the Toponym Yerushalayim" in Demsky (ed.) These Are the Names: Studies in Jewish Onomastics, Vol. 3 (Ramat Gan, 2002), pp. 11-20), Avi Hurvitz (A Concise Lexicon of Late Biblical Hebrew: Linguistic Innovations in the Writings of the Second Temple Period (Brill, 2014), p. 128) and Nadav Na’aman ("Shaaraim – The Gateway to the Kingdom of Judah" in The Journal of Hebrew Scriptures, Vol. 8 (2008), article no. 24, pp. 2-3).</ref> The word originally connoted "metropolis" or "civilization" and means "country", or "frontier-land".{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B=

{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}

The ancient Egyptian name of the country was 𓆎𓅓𓏏𓊖 km.t, which means black ground or black soil, referring to the fertile black soils of the Nile flood plains, distinct from the deshret (dšṛt), or "red land" of the desert.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> This name is commonly vocalised as Kemet, but was probably pronounced [kuːmat] in ancient Egyptian.<ref>Antonio Loprieno, "Egyptian and Coptic Phonology", in Phonologies of Asia and Africa (including the Caucasus). Vol 1 of 2. Ed: Alan S Kaye. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1997: p 449</ref> The name is realised as kēme and kēmə in the Coptic stage of the Egyptian language, and appeared in early Greek as Χημία{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} (Khēmía).<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Another name was tꜣ-mry "land of the riverbank".<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> The names of Upper and Lower Egypt were Ta-Sheme'aw (tꜣ-šmꜥw) "sedgeland" and Ta-Mehew (tꜣ mḥw) "northland", respectively.

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