::East Pakistan


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="3" class="fn org summary" style="text-align:center; line-height:1.2em; font-size:115%; font-weight:bold;" পূর্ব পাকিস্তান{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}
  1. REDIRECT {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}
="3" style="vertical-align:middle; text-align:center; font-size:115%;"Former eastern wing of Pakistan
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="2" Capital ="width:50%;" Dhaka

="2" Languages Bengali (official)

="2" Religion Islam

="2" Administrator || - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" •  ="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 1960–1962 Azam Khan - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1962–1969 Abdul Monem Khan - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1969–1971 Syed Mohammad Ahsan - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1971 Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" - class="mergedrow" ="2" Chief Minister - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1955–1956, 1958|| Abu Hussain Sarkar - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1956–1958 ="2" Governors - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1955–1956 Amiruddin Ahmad - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1956–1958 - ="2" LegislatureLegislative Assembly ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Final settlement ="vertical-align: bottom;"22 November 1954 ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Bangladesh Liberation War ="vertical-align: bottom;"26 March 1971 ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Indo-Pakistani War ="vertical-align: bottom;"3 December 1971 ="2" Area 147,570 km² (56,977 sq mi) ="2" CurrencyPakistani rupee ="2" Today part of
East Pakistan

Government Socialist state (1954–58)
Presidential republic (1960–69)
Military government (1969–71)
Ata-ur-Rahman Khan

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A. K. Fazlul Huq

- class="mergedbottomrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1958–1960

Zakir Husain

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Historical era Cold War
 •  Established 1955
 •  Surrender of Pakistan 16 December 1971

East Pakistan ( Pūrbô Pākistān; Urdu:

  1. REDIRECT ‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} Mas̱ẖriqī Pākistān IPA: [məʃrɪqiː pɑːkɪst̪ɑːn]), present-day Bangladesh, was a provincial state of Pakistan that existed in the Bengal region of the northeast of South Asia from 1955 until 1971, following the One Unit programme that laid the existence of East Pakistan.<ref name="worldstatesmen"/>

In 1947, the region of Bengal under the British Empire was divided into East and West Bengal that separated the eastern areas with a Muslim majority from the western areas with a Hindu majority.<ref name="Story of Pakistan (Bengali Partition Part I)">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The partition of Bengal saw the mainstream revival of Hindu–Muslim riots that drove both Bengali Muslims and Hindus further apart, leading to more unrest in Bengal.<ref name="Partition of Bengal [1905-1911, Part II]">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> In 1947, districts of Bengal with a Muslim majority favoured the division after approving the 3 June Plan presented by the Viceroy of India Lord Mountbatten, and merged with the new province of East Bengal of the Dominion of Pakistan.<ref name="The 3 June Plan [1947]">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> From 1947 until 1954, East Bengal was an independent administrative unit which was governed by the Pakistan Muslim League led by Nurul Amin.<ref name="The 3 June Plan [1947]"/> In 1955, the Bengali Prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra devolved the province of East Bengal and established the state as East Pakistan with Dhaka its state capital.<ref name="worldstatesmen"/> During this time, the 1954 elections were held which saw the complete defeat of Pakistan Muslim League led by the United Front coalition of the Awami League, the Krishak Praja Party, the Democratic Party and Nizam-e-Islam.<ref name="Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name="U.S. Government">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref name="Verso Publishing Co. plc">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> The Awami League gained the control of East Pakistan after appointing Huseyn Suhrawardy for the office of Prime minister.<ref name="Story of Pakistan (1956 times)">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="Rabindranath Trived, Asian Tribune">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> This authoritarian period that existed from 1958 until 1971, is often regarded as period of mass repression, resentment, and political neglect and ignorance.<ref name="Dawn Newspapers, 2007">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref name="Dawn Newspapers, 28 March 2004"/> Allying with the population of West, the East's population unanimously voted for Fatima Jinnah during the 1965 presidential elections against Ayub Khan.<ref name="Presidential Election (1965)">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The elections were widely believed to be heavily rigged in the favour of Ayub Khan using state patronage and intimidation to influence the indirectly elected electoral college.<ref name="Presidential Election (1965)"/> The economic disparity, impression that West Pakistan despite being less populated than East Pakistan was ruling and prospering at its cost further popularize the Bengali nationalism.<ref name="Asif Haroon Raja">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The support for state autonomy grew when Awami League introduced the Six point movement in 1966,<ref name="Story of Pakistan (Awami League's Six-Point Program )">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> and participated with full force in the 1970 general elections in which the Awami League had won and secured the exclusive mandate of East-Pakistan.<ref name="Pakistan Parliamentary Elections, 1970">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="Separation of East Pakistan (Part III)">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

After the general elections, President General Yahya Khan attempted to negotiate with both Pakistan Peoples Party and Awami League to share power in the central government but talks failed when President Yahya Khan authorised an armed operation (codename Searchlight) to attack the Awami League.<ref name="Pakistan Parliamentary Elections, 1970"/> As response to this operation, the Awami League announced the declaration of independence of East Pakistan on 26 March 1971 and began an armed struggle against the Pakistan, with India staunchly supporting Awami League by the means of providing arm ammunition to its guerrilla forces.<ref name="The Separation of East Pakistan [1971] (Part IV)">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

East Pakistan had an area of 147,570 km2 (56,977 mi2), bordering India on three sides (East, North, and West) and the Bay of Bengal to the South. East Pakistan was one of the largest provincial states of Pakistan, with the largest population, largest political representation, and sharing the largest economic share.<ref name="Dawn Newspapers, 28 March 2004">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> A nine-month-long war ended on 16 December 1971, when the Pakistan Armed Forces were overrun in Dhaka, ultimately signing the instrument of surrender which resulted in the largest number of prisoners of war since World War II.<ref name="The Separation of East Pakistan [1971] (Part IV)"/> Finally on 16 December 1971, East Pakistan was officially disestablished and was succeeded as the independent state of Bangladesh.<ref name="The Separation of East Pakistan [1971] (Part IV)"/>

East Pakistan sections
Intro  Geographical history  Political history  Military  Governors  Chief Ministers   Provincial Symbols   Memorials and Legacy  See also  References   External links   

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