::East Jerusalem


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Map of East Jerusalem in 2007. The Arab areas are coloured green while the Jewish areas are blue.

East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem (Arabic: القدس الشرقية‎{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, Hebrew: ) is the sector of Jerusalem that was not part of Israeli-held West Jerusalem at the end of the 1948–1949 Arab–Israeli War. Israeli and Palestinian definitions of it differ;<ref>Leila Farsakh, Palestinian Labour Migration to Israel: Labour, Land and Occupation, Routledge 2005 p. 9: "Israeli and Palestinian sources differ in their definition of East Jerusalem."</ref> the Palestinian official position is based on the 1949–1967 post-armistice situation, while the Israeli position is mainly based on the current municipality boundaries of Jerusalem, which resulted from a series of administrative enlargements decided by Israeli municipal authorities since 1967. Despite its name, East Jerusalem includes neighborhoods to the north, east and south of the Old City, and in the wider definition of the term even on all these sides of West Jerusalem.

During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Jerusalem was contested between Jordan and Israel, and on the cessation of hostilities, the two countries secretly negotiated a division of the city, with the eastern sector coming under Jordanian rule. This arrangement was formalized in the Rhodes Agreement in March 1949.<ref>Shlomo Hasson, 'A Master Plan for Jerusalem: Stage One – the Survey,' in Moshe Maʻoz, Sari Nusseibeh (eds.), Jerusalem: Points Beyond Friction, and Beyond, Kluwer Law International, pp. 15-24.</ref><ref name="Korman">Sharon Korman, The Right of Conquest: The Acquisition of Territory by Force in International Law and Practice, Oxford University Press, 1996 p. 251:"Both states treated the respective sectors of Jerusalem under their effective control as forming an integral part of their state territory between 1948 and 1967, and each recognized the other's de facto control in their respective sectors by the signature of the 1949 Jordan-Israel General Armistice Agreement."</ref> A week after David Ben-Gurion presented his party's assertion that "Jewish Jerusalem is an organic, inseparable part of the State of Israel" in December 1949,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Jordan annexed East Jerusalem.<ref>Menachem Klein, Jerusalem: The Contested City, 2001, Hurst & Co. Publishers, p. 51.</ref> These decisions were confirmed respectively in the Knesset in January 1950 and the Jordanian Parliament in April 1950.<ref name="Korman2">Sharon Korman, The Right of Conquest: The Acquisition of Territory by Force in International Law and Practice, Oxford University Press, 1996 p. 251, n. 5.</ref>

On being captured by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War, East Jerusalem, with expanded borders, came under Israeli rule.<ref>Ian S. Lustick, "Has Israel Annexed East Jerusalem?", Middle East Policy, Vol. V, No. 1, pp. 34-45, January 1997; accessed 25 November 2014.</ref> It includes Jerusalem's Old City and some of the holiest sites of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, such as the Temple Mount, Western Wall, Al-Aqsa Mosque, Dome of the Rock and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The term sometimes refers to the area which was incorporated into the municipality of Jerusalem after 1967, covering some {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}}, while sometimes it refers to the smaller area of the pre-1967 Jordanian controlled part of the Jerusalem municipality, covering {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}}.

In the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)'s Palestinian Declaration of Independence of 1988, Jerusalem is stated to be the capital of the State of Palestine. In 2000, the Palestinian Authority passed a law proclaiming Jerusalem as such, and in 2002, this law was ratified by then chairman Yasser Arafat,<ref name=PD-2002-10-06a>"Arafat Signs Law Making Jerusalem Palestinian Capital", People's Daily, published 6 October 2002</ref><ref name=BBC-2002-10-06a>Arafat names Jerusalem as capital, BBC News, published 6 October 2002.</ref> although Israel does not allow Palestinian government offices in East Jerusalem.

In 1980, Israel unilaterally declared all of Jerusalem, both its eastern and western sectors, to be its undivided capital, while formally disavowing that its incorporation constituted annexation. East Jerusalem's status in international law however remains uncertain: the United Nations' Security Council immediately dismissed the resolution of unification as a "violation of international law",<ref name="Korman3">Sharon Korman, The Right of Conquest: The Acquisition of Territory by Force in International Law and Practice, Oxford University Press, 1996 p. 254.</ref> and the international community does not recognize Israel's or Palestinian sovereignty there.<ref>Tobias Kelly, "Laws of Suspicion: Legal Status, Space and the Impossibility of Separation in the Israeli-occupied West Bank", Franz von Benda-Beckmann, Keebet von Benda-Beckmann, Julia M. Eckert (eds.) Rules of Law and Laws of Ruling: On the Governance of Law, Ashgate Publishing 2009, pp. 83-99</ref>

East Jerusalem sections
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