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Structure {{#invoke:Multiple image|render}}

A dopamine molecule consists of a catechol structure (a benzene ring with two hydroxyl side groups) with one amine group attached via an ethyl chain.<ref name=PubChem>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> As such, dopamine is the simplest possible catecholamine, a family that also includes the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and epinephrine.<ref name=Catecholamine>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The presence of a benzene ring with this amine attachment makes it a phenethylamine, a family that includes numerous psychoactive drugs.<ref name=Phenethylamine>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Like most amines, dopamine is an organic base.<ref name=Carter>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> In acidic environments, it is generally protonated.<ref name=Carter/> The protonated form is highly water-soluble and relatively stable, though it is capable of becoming oxidized if exposed to oxygen or other oxidants.<ref name=Carter/> In basic environments, dopamine is not protonated.<ref name=Carter/> In this free base form, it is less water-soluble and also more highly reactive.<ref name=Carter/> Because of the increased stability and water-solubility of the protonated form, dopamine is supplied for chemical or pharmaceutical use as dopamine hydochloride—that is, the hydrochloride salt that is created when dopamine is combined with hydrochloric acid.<ref name=Carter/> In dry form, dopamine hydrochloride is a fine colorless powder.<ref name=Carter/>


Dopamine sections
Intro  Structure  Biochemistry  Functions  Medical uses  Pharmacology  Diseases and disorders  Comparative biology and evolution  History and development  See also   References   

Structure
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