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Medical uses::Dopamine

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Medical uses

Dopamine HCl preparation, single dose vial for intravenous administration.
Dopamine HCl preparation, single dose vial for intravenous administration

Dopamine, sold under the trade names Intropin, Dopastat, and Revimine, among others, is widely used as a medication: it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> It is most commonly used in the treatment of severe low blood pressure, slow heart rates, or cardiac arrest, especially in newborn infants.<ref name=Noori>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> It is given by injection.

Its effects, depending on dosage, include an increase in sodium excretion by the kidneys, an increase in urine output, an increase in heart rate, and an increase in blood pressure.<ref name=BhattMehta/> The half-life of dopamine in plasma is very short—approximately one minute in adults, two minutes in newborn infants, up to five minutes in preterm infants—so it is usually given in a continuous intravenous drip rather than a single injection.<ref name=BhattMehta>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> At low doses it acts through the sympathetic nervous system to increase heart muscle contraction force and heart rate, thereby increasing cardiac output and blood pressure.<ref name="BryantKnights2010"/> Higher doses also causes vasoconstriction that further increases blood pressure.<ref name="BryantKnights2010">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Older literature also describes very low doses thought to improve kidney function without other consequences, but recent reviews have concluded that doses at such low levels are not effective and may sometimes be harmful.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

Side effects of dopamine include negative effects on kidney function and cardiac arrhythmias.<ref name="BryantKnights2010"/> The LD50, or toxic dose which is expected to be lethal in 50% of the population, has been found to be: 59 mg/kg (mouse; administered intravenously); 950 mg/kg (mouse; administered intraperitoneally); 163 mg/kg (rat; administered intraperitoneally); 79 mg/kg (dog; administered intravenously).<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>


Dopamine sections
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Medical uses
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