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History and development::Dopamine

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History and development {{#invoke:main|main}} Dopamine was first synthesized in 1910 by George Barger and James Ewens at Wellcome Laboratories in London, England<ref name="pmid18781671">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> and first identified in the human brain by Kathleen Montagu in 1957. It was named dopamine because it is a monoamine whose precursor in the Barger-Ewens synthesis is 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levodopamine or L-DOPA). Dopamine's function as a neurotransmitter was first recognized in 1958 by Arvid Carlsson and Nils-Åke Hillarp at the Laboratory for Chemical Pharmacology of the National Heart Institute of Sweden.<ref name="pmid11165672">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Carlsson was awarded the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for showing that dopamine is not only a precursor of norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline), but is also itself a neurotransmitter.<ref name=Barondes>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Polydopamine

Research motivated by mussel adhesive polyphenolic proteins led to the discovery in 2007 that a wide variety of materials, if placed in a solution of dopamine at slightly basic pH, will become coated with a layer of polymerized dopamine, often referred to as polydopamine.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name=Dreyer>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> This polymerized dopamine forms by a spontaneous oxidation reaction, and is formally a type of melanin.<ref name=Lynge>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Synthesis usually involves reaction of dopamine hydrochloride with Tris as a base in water. The structure of polydopamine is unknown.<ref name=Dreyer />

Polydopamine coatings can form on objects ranging in size from nanoparticles to large surfaces.<ref name=Lynge/> Polydopamine layers have chemical properties that have the potential to be extremely useful, and numerous studies have examined their possible applications.<ref name=Lynge/> At the simplest level, they can be used for protection against damage by light, or to form capsules for drug delivery.<ref name=Lynge/> At a more sophisticated level, their adhesive properties may make them useful as substrates for biosensors or other biologically active macromolecules.<ref name=Lynge/>


Dopamine sections
Intro  Structure  Biochemistry  Functions  Medical uses  Pharmacology  Diseases and disorders  Comparative biology and evolution  History and development  See also   References   

History and development
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