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In other languages In many languages, such as Polish, the em dash is used as an opening quotation mark. There is no matching closing quotation mark; typically a new paragraph will be started, introduced by a dash, for each turn in the dialog.

Corpus studies indicate that em dashes are more commonly used in Russian than in English.<ref name="AngelelliJacobson2009">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> In Russian, the em dash is used for the present copula (meaning "am"/"is"/"are"), which is unpronounced in spoken Russian.

In French, em or en dashes can be used as parentheses (brackets), but the use of a second dash as a closing parenthesis is optional. When a closing dash is not used the sentence is ended with a period (full-stop) as usual. Dashes are, however, much less common than parentheses.


Dash sections
Intro  Common dashes  Similar Unicode characters  In other languages  Rendering dashes on computers  References  External links  

In other languages
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