::DNA sequencing


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DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases—adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine—in a strand of DNA. The advent of rapid DNA sequencing methods has greatly accelerated biological and medical research and discovery.

Knowledge of DNA sequences has become indispensable for basic biological research, and in numerous applied fields such as medical diagnosis, biotechnology, forensic biology, virology and biological systematics. The rapid speed of sequencing attained with modern DNA sequencing technology has been instrumental in the sequencing of complete DNA sequences, or genomes of numerous types and species of life, including the human genome and other complete DNA sequences of many animal, plant, and microbial species.

An example of the results of automated chain-termination DNA sequencing.

The first DNA sequences were obtained in the early 1970s by academic researchers using laborious methods based on two-dimensional chromatography. Following the development of fluorescence-based sequencing methods with a DNA sequencer,<ref name=olsvik1993>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}open access publication - free to read</ref> DNA sequencing has become easier and orders of magnitude faster.<ref name="pmid18992322">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

DNA sequencing sections
Intro   Use of sequencing   The four canonical bases   History    Basic methods    Advanced methods and de novo sequencing    Next-generation methods    Methods in development   Sample preparation   Development initiatives    Computational challenges   Ethical issues   See also    References    External links   

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