Actions

::Czech Republic

::concepts

Czech::republic    Title::prague    Bohemia::right    Align::europe    Country::language    European::century

{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:Pp-move-indef|main}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }}

Czech Republic
{{safesubst:#invoke:Separated entries|br}}
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Pravda vítězí"{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} (Czech)
"Truth prevails"
Anthem: {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
Location of the  Czech Republic{{#invoke:String
Location of the  Czech Republic{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(dark green)

– in Europe{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(green & dark grey)
– in the European Union{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Prague
{{#invoke:Coordinates|coord}}{{#coordinates:50|05|N|14|28|E|type:city||

| |name=

}}
Official language Czech<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web

}}</ref>
{{{1}}} {{safesubst:#invoke:collapsible list|main}}
Ethnic groups (2014<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web

}}</ref>)
{{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
Religion {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
Demonym Czech
Government Unitary parliamentary
constitutional republic
 -  President Miloš Zeman
 -  Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house Chamber of Deputies
Formation
 -  Duchy of Bohemia c. 870 
 -  Kingdom of Bohemia 1198 
 -  Czechoslovakia 28 October 1918 
 -  Czech Socialist Republic 1 January 1969 
 -  Czech Republic 1 January 1993 
 -  Joined the European Union 1 May 2004 
Area
 -  Total 78,866 km2 (116th)
30,450 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 2
Population
 -  September 2015 estimate 10,541,466<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web

}}</ref> (81st)
 -  2011 census 10,436,560<ref>Census of Population and Housing 2011: Basic final results. Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved on 19 December 2012.</ref>
 -  Density 134/km2 (87th)
341/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $325.285 billion<ref name=imf2>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web

}}</ref> (50th)
 -  Per capita $30,895<ref name=imf2/> (39th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $180.789 billion<ref name=imf2/> (49th)
 -  Per capita $17,171<ref name=imf2/> (41st)
Gini (2012)24.9<ref name=eurogini>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web

}}</ref>
low
HDI (2013)Steady 0.861<ref name="HDI">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web

}}</ref>
very high · 28th
Currency Czech koruna (CZK)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Calling code +420b
Patron saint St Wenceslaus
ISO 3166 code CZ
Internet TLD .czc
a. The question is rhetorical, implying "those places where my homeland lies".
b. Code 42 was shared with Slovakia until 1997.
c. Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

The Czech Republic ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} CHEK-rə-PUB-lik;<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Czech: Česká republika{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} [ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka]) is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the southeast and Poland to the northeast. The capital and largest city, Prague, has over 1.2 million residents. The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia.

The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslids. In 1004, the duchy was formally recognized as part of the Holy Roman Empire,<ref name="The Path">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1212, and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. The King of Bohemia ruled not only Bohemia itself, but also other lands, which together formed the so-called Crown of Bohemia, and he had a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. In the Hussite wars of the 15th century driven by the Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and organized mainly by the emperor and princes of the Holy Roman Empire.

Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary. The Protestant Bohemian Revolt (1618–20) against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War, after which the monarchy consolidated its rule, reimposed Catholicism, and adopted a policy of gradual Germanization. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced its revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, which was formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I.

Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, and was liberated in 1945 by Soviet and American forces. Most of the German-speaking inhabitants were expelled after the war and thus the country lost its sizeable minority and its bilingual character. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections. Following the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a single-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and a multiparty parliamentary republic was formed. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

The Czech Republic is a developed country<ref name="worldbank06">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> with an advanced,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> high income economy<ref>Country and Lending Groups. World Bank. Accessed on 3 July 2014.</ref> and high living standards.<ref>http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2014/01/pdf/text.pdf</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>Social Progress Index</ref> The UNDP ranks the country 15th in inequality-adjusted human development.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The Czech Republic also ranks as the 10th most peaceful country, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE and the Council of Europe.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Etymology

{{#invoke:main|main}} The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii". The current name comes from the endonym Čech, borrowed through Polish and spelled accordingly.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref> Czech. CollinsDictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved 19 November 2012. </ref> The name comes from the Slavic tribe (Czechs, Czech: Čechové{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}) and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain. The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people; kinsman", thus making it cognate to the Czech word člověk (a person).<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia (Čechy) in the west, Moravia (Morava) in the southeast, and Czech Silesia (Slezsko; the smaller, south-eastern part of historical Silesia, most of which is located within modern Poland) in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown, and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas. When the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country.

Following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia at the end of 1992, the Czech part of the former nation found itself without a common single-word name in English. In 1993, the Czech Minister of Foreign Affairs Jozef Zieleniec suggested referring to the new country in less formal contexts as "Czechland", singling it out as a traditional name of the dominion of the Czechs.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> He also offered the alternative "Czechia" {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} (Česko Czech pronunciation: [ˈtʃɛsko] in Czech); while the Czech form has gained usage, the English version is still rare.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The current Czech president Miloš Zeman uses the name Czechia in his official speeches and promotes its wider use.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> Nevertheless, in official documents and the full names of government institutions the term Czech Republic is always used.


Czech Republic sections
Intro  History  Government and politics  Geography  Economy  Demographics  Culture  See also  References  Further reading  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: History
<<>>