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Cyanide
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Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references
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A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains monovalent combining group CN. This group, known as the cyano group, consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom.<ref>IUPAC Gold Book cyanides</ref>

In inorganic cyanides, such as sodium cyanide, NaCN, this group is present as the negatively charged polyatomic cyanide ion (CN); these compounds, which are regarded as salts of hydrocyanic acid, are highly toxic. The cyanide ion is isoelectronic with carbon monoxide and with molecular nitrogen.<ref>Greenwood, N. N.; & Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd Edn.), Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4.{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Page needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[page needed] }}</ref><ref>G. L. Miessler and D. A. Tarr "Inorganic Chemistry" 3rd Ed, Pearson/Prentice Hall publisher, ISBN 0-13-035471-6.{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Page needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[page needed] }}</ref> Most cyanides are highly toxic.<ref name="CMC">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Organic cyanides are usually called nitriles; in these, the CN group is linked by a covalent bond to a carbon-containing group, such as methyl (CH3) in methyl cyanide (acetonitrile).

Hydrocyanic acid, also known as hydrogen cyanide, or HCN, is a highly volatile liquid used to prepare acrylonitrile, which is used in the production of acrylic fibers, synthetic rubber, and plastics. Cyanides are employed in a number of chemical processes, including fumigation, case hardening of iron and steel, electroplating, and the concentration of ores. In nature, substances yielding cyanide are present in certain seeds, such as the pit of the cherry and the seeds of apples.


Cyanide sections
Intro  Nomenclature and etymology  Occurrence and reactions  Manufacture  Toxicity  Applications  Chemical tests for cyanide  References  External links  

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