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Etymology The modern term "culture" is based on a term used by the Ancient Roman orator Cicero in his Tusculanae Disputationes, where he wrote of a cultivation of the soul or "cultura animi",<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> using an agricultural metaphor for the development of a philosophical soul, understood teleologically as the highest possible ideal for human development. Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a modern context, meaning something similar, but no longer assuming that philosophy was man's natural perfection. His use, and that of many writers after him "refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original barbarism, and through artifice, become fully human".<ref name=velkley>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Philosopher Edward S. Casey (1996) describes: "The very word culture meant "place tilled" in Middle English, and the same word goes back to Latin colere, "to inhabit, care for, till, worship" and cultus, "A cult, especially a religious one." To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensely to cultivate it — to be responsible for it, to respond to it, to attend to it caringly."<ref> {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Full |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[full citation needed] }}</ref>

Culture described by Velkley:<ref name=velkley/>
... originally meant the cultivation of the soul or mind, acquires most of its later modern meanings in the writings of the 18th-century German thinkers, who were on various levels developing Rousseau's criticism of "modern liberalism and Enlightenment". Thus a contrast between "culture" and "civilization" is usually implied in these authors, even when not expressed as such.

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