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Chinese::Contraction (grammar)

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Chinese Contractions exist in Classical Chinese, some of which are used in modern Chinese.

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Transliteration<ref name="oldchinese">Old Chinese reconstruction search containing William H. Baxter's reconstructions.

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Contraction<ref name="pulleyblank" /> Transliteration<ref name="oldchinese" /> Notes<ref name="pulleyblank" />
之乎 tjə ga tjᴀ In some rarer cases 諸 can also be contraction for 有之乎. 諸 can be used on its own with the meaning of "all, the class of", as in 諸侯 "the feudal lords."
若之何 njᴀ tjə gaj 奈何 najs gaj
於之 ʔa tjə ʔrjan 於之 is never used; only 焉.
之焉 tjə ʔrjan tjan Rare.
于之 wja tjə wjan Rare. The prepositions 於, 于, and 乎 are of different origin, but used interchangeably (except that 乎 can also be used as a final question particle).
如之 nja tjə njan
曰之 wjot tjə wjən
不之 pjə tjə pjət
毋之 mja tjə mjət 弗 and 勿 were originally not contractions, but were reanalyzed as contractions in the Warring States period.
而已 njə ljəʔ njəʔ
胡不 ga pjə gap 胡 is a variant of 何.
也乎 ljᴀjʔ ga ljaʔ Also written 歟.
也乎 ljᴀjʔ ga zjᴀ Also written 耶. Probably a dialectal variant of 與.
不乎 pjə ga pja 夫 has many other meanings.

Contractions also appear in Cantonese, for example, 乜嘢<ref>http://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=%E4%B9%9C%E5%98%A2&oldid=27284238</ref> and 咩.


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