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Cone cell structure

Cone cells, or cones, are one of two types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye. They are responsible for color vision and function best in relatively bright light, as opposed to rod cells, which work better in dim light. Cone cells are densely packed in the fovea centralis, a 0.3 mm diameter rod-free area with very thin, densely packed cones which quickly reduce in number towards the periphery of the retina. There are about six to seven million cones in a human eye and are most concentrated towards the macula.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

A commonly cited figure of six million in the human eye was found by Osterberg in 1935.<ref name="Osterberg">G. Osterberg (1935). “Topography of the layer of rods and cones in the human retina,” Acta Ophthalmol., Suppl. 13:6, pp. 1–102.</ref> Oyster's textbook (1999)<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> cites work by Curcio et al. (1990) indicating an average close to 4.5 million cone cells and 90 million rod cells in the human retina.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

Cones are less sensitive to light than the rod cells in the retina (which support vision at low light levels), but allow the perception of colour. They are also able to perceive finer detail and more rapid changes in images, because their response times to stimuli are faster than those of rods.<ref name="Kandel">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Cones are normally one of the three types, each with different pigment, namely: S-cones, M-cones and L-cones. Each cone is therefore sensitive to visible wavelengths of light that correspond to short-wavelength, medium-wavelength and long-wavelength light.<ref>Schacter,Gilbert, Wegner, "Psychology", New York: Worth Publishers,2009.</ref> Because humans usually have three kinds of cones with different photopsins, which have different response curves and thus respond to variation in colour in different ways, we have trichromatic vision. Being colour blind can change this, and there have been some verified reports of people with four or more types of cones, giving them tetrachromatic vision.<ref name="Jameson 2001" > {{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref> {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref name="Roth 2006" > {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The three pigments responsible for detecting light have been shown to vary in their exact chemical composition due to genetic mutation; different individuals will have cones with different color sensitivity. Destruction of the cone cells from disease would result in blindness.


Cone cell sections
Intro  Types  Structure  Diseases   Color afterimage   See also  References  External links  

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Cone cell structure

Cone cells, or cones, are one of two types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye. They are responsible for color vision and function best in relatively bright light, as opposed to rod cells, which work better in dim light. Cone cells are densely packed in the fovea centralis, a 0.3 mm diameter rod-free area with very thin, densely packed cones which quickly reduce in number towards the periphery of the retina. There are about six to seven million cones in a human eye and are most concentrated towards the macula.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

A commonly cited figure of six million in the human eye was found by Osterberg in 1935.<ref name="Osterberg">G. Osterberg (1935). “Topography of the layer of rods and cones in the human retina,” Acta Ophthalmol., Suppl. 13:6, pp. 1–102.</ref> Oyster's textbook (1999)<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> cites work by Curcio et al. (1990) indicating an average close to 4.5 million cone cells and 90 million rod cells in the human retina.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

Cones are less sensitive to light than the rod cells in the retina (which support vision at low light levels), but allow the perception of colour. They are also able to perceive finer detail and more rapid changes in images, because their response times to stimuli are faster than those of rods.<ref name="Kandel">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Cones are normally one of the three types, each with different pigment, namely: S-cones, M-cones and L-cones. Each cone is therefore sensitive to visible wavelengths of light that correspond to short-wavelength, medium-wavelength and long-wavelength light.<ref>Schacter,Gilbert, Wegner, "Psychology", New York: Worth Publishers,2009.</ref> Because humans usually have three kinds of cones with different photopsins, which have different response curves and thus respond to variation in colour in different ways, we have trichromatic vision. Being colour blind can change this, and there have been some verified reports of people with four or more types of cones, giving them tetrachromatic vision.<ref name="Jameson 2001" > {{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref> {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref name="Roth 2006" > {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The three pigments responsible for detecting light have been shown to vary in their exact chemical composition due to genetic mutation; different individuals will have cones with different color sensitivity. Destruction of the cone cells from disease would result in blindness.


Cone cell sections
Intro  Types  Structure  Diseases   Color afterimage   See also  References  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Types
<<>>