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Hardware {{#invoke:main|main}} The term hardware covers all of those parts of a computer that are tangible objects. Circuits, displays, power supplies, cables, keyboards, printers and mice are all hardware.

History of computing hardware


First generation (mechanical/electromechanical) Calculators Pascal's calculator, Arithmometer, Difference engine, Quevedo's analytical machines
Programmable devices Jacquard loom, Analytical engine, IBM ASCC/Harvard Mark I, Harvard Mark II, IBM SSEC, Z1, Z2, Z3
Second generation (vacuum tubes) Calculators Atanasoff–Berry Computer, IBM 604, UNIVAC 60, UNIVAC 120
Programmable devices Colossus, ENIAC, Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine, EDSAC, Manchester Mark 1, Ferranti Pegasus, Ferranti Mercury, CSIRAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC I, IBM 701, IBM 702, IBM 650, Z22
Third generation (discrete transistors and SSI, MSI, LSI integrated circuits) Mainframes IBM 7090, IBM 7080, IBM System/360, BUNCH
Minicomputer LINC, PDP-8, PDP-11, IBM System/32, IBM System/36
Fourth generation (VLSI integrated circuits) Minicomputer VAX, IBM System i
4-bit microcomputer Intel 4004, Intel 4040
8-bit microcomputer Intel 8008, Intel 8080, Motorola 6800, Motorola 6809, MOS Technology 6502, Zilog Z80
16-bit microcomputer Intel 8088, Zilog Z8000, WDC 65816/65802
32-bit microcomputer Intel 80386, Pentium, Motorola 68000, ARM
64-bit microcomputer<ref>Most major 64-bit instruction set architectures are extensions of earlier designs. All of the architectures listed in this table, except for Alpha, existed in 32-bit forms before their 64-bit incarnations were introduced.</ref> Alpha, MIPS, PA-RISC, PowerPC, SPARC, x86-64, ARMv8-A
Embedded computer Intel 8048, Intel 8051
Personal computer Desktop computer, Home computer, Laptop computer, Personal digital assistant (PDA), Portable computer, Tablet PC, Wearable computer
Theoretical/experimental Quantum computer, Chemical computer, DNA computing, Optical computer, Spintronics based computer

Other hardware topics

Peripheral device (input/output) Input Mouse, keyboard, joystick, image scanner, webcam, graphics tablet, microphone
Output Monitor, printer, loudspeaker
Both Floppy disk drive, hard disk drive, optical disc drive, teleprinter
Computer buses Short range RS-232, SCSI, PCI, USB
Long range (computer networking) Ethernet, ATM, FDDI

Computer sections
Intro  Etymology  History  Programs  Components  Networking and the Internet  Misconceptions  Future  Further topics  Hardware  Software  Languages  Types of computers  Input Devices  Output Devices  Professions and organizations  See also  Notes  References  External links  

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