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Republic of Colombia
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Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Libertad y Orden"{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} (Spanish)
"Freedom and Order"
Anthem: ¡Oh, Gloria Inmarcesible!{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}  (Spanish)
O unfading glory!
Capital
and largest city
Escudo de Armas de Bogota.svg Bogotá
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Official languages Spanisha
Recognised regional languages 68 ethnic languages and dialects. English also official in the San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina Islands.
Ethnic groups (2005<ref name = "grupos étnicos">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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}}</ref><ref name="The Society and Its Environment">Bushnell, David & Rex A. Hudson (2010) "The Society and Its Environment"; Colombia: a country study: pp. 87, 92. Washingtion D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.</ref>)
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Demonym Colombian
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
 -  President Juan Manuel Santos
 -  Vice President Germán Vargas Lleras
Legislature Congress
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house Chamber of Representatives
Independence from Spain
 -  Declared 20 July 1810 
 -  Recognized 7 August 1819 
 -  Current constitution 4 July 1991 
Area
 -  Total 1,141,748 km2 (26th)
440,831 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 8.8 (17th)
Population
 -  July 2015 estimate 48,219,827 <ref name="DANE clock">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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}}</ref> (27th)
 -  2005 census 42,888,592 <ref name="DANE clock"/>
 -  Density 40.74/km2 (173rd)
105.72/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $682.977  billion<ref name=imf2>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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}}</ref> (28th)
 -  Per capita $14,164<ref name=imf2/>
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $427.139 billion<ref name=imf2/> (29th)
 -  Per capita $8,858<ref name=imf2/>
Gini (2014)positive decrease 53.8<ref name="socio-economic policies">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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high · 12th
HDI (2013)Steady 0.711<ref name="HDI">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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high · 98th
Currency Peso (COP)
Time zone COT (UTC−5b)
Date format dd−mm−yyyy (CE)
Drives on the right
Calling code +57
ISO 3166 code CO
Internet TLD .co
a. Although the Colombian Constitution specifies Spanish (Castellano) as the official language in all its territory, other languages spoken in the country by ethnic groups (approximately 68 languages) are also official in their territories.<ref>Colombian Constitution of 1991 (Title I – Concerning Fundamental Principles – Article 10)</ref> English is also official in San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina Islands.<ref name = "LEY47DE1993">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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b. The official Colombian time <ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web }}</ref> is controlled and coordinated by the state agency Superintendency of Industry and Commerce.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web

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Colombia ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} kə-LUM-biə or {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}} kə-LOM-biə; Spanish: [koˈlombja]), officially the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: About this sound República de Colombia ),Unknown extension tag "ref" is a country situated in the northwest of South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru;<ref name = "Land borders"/> and it shares maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Dominican Republic and Haiti.<ref name = "Maritime borders"/> It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments.

The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá.<ref name="LABLAA6">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 "Gran Colombia" had collapsed with the secession of Venezuela and Ecuador. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886.<ref name="CIAWFB">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Panama seceded in 1903.

Since the 1960s, the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, which escalated in the 1990s, but then decreased from 2000 onward.<ref name="CIAWFB"/>

Colombia is ethnically diverse, its people descending from the original native inhabitants, Spanish colonists, Africans originally brought to the country as slaves, and 20th-century immigrants from Europe and the Middle East, all contributing to a diverse cultural heritage.<ref name = "Colombia is ethnically diverse"/> This has also been influenced by Colombia's varied geography, and the imposing landscape of the country has resulted in the development of very strong regional identities. The majority of the urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains, but Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines.

Ecologically, Colombia is considered one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries, and of these, the most biodiverse per square kilometer.<ref name = "Biodiversity of Colombia">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name = "Paisajes naturales">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Colombia is a middle power with the fourth largest economy in Latin America,<ref name=imf2/> is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and is an accessing member to the OECD.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> Colombia has a diversified economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run.<ref name ="Colombianeconomy"/>


Colombia sections
Intro   Etymology    History    Geography    Government and politics    Economy    Demographics    Culture   Health   Education    See also    Notes    References    External links   

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