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Classical liberalism is a political ideology a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties and political freedom with representative democracy under the rule of law and emphasizes economic freedom.<ref name="google.com">Modern Political Philosophy (1999), Richard Hudelson, pp. 37–38</ref><ref>M. O. Dickerson et al., An Introduction to Government and Politics: A Conceptual Approach (2009) p. 129</ref>

Classical liberalism developed in the 19th century in Europe and the United States. Although classical liberalism built on ideas that had already developed by the end of the 18th century, it advocated a specific kind of society, government and public policy as a response to the Industrial Revolution and urbanization.<ref>Hamowy, p. xxix</ref> Notable individuals whose ideas have contributed to classical liberalism include John Locke,<ref name="Steven M. Dworetz 1994">Steven M. Dworetz, The Unvarnished Doctrine: Locke, Liberalism, and the American Revolution (1994)</ref> Jean-Baptiste Say, Thomas Malthus, and David Ricardo. It drew on the economics of Adam Smith and on a belief in natural law,<ref>Joyce Appleby, Liberalism and Republicanism in the Historical Imagination (1992) p. 58</ref> utilitarianism,<ref>Gerald F. Gaus and Chandran Kukathas, Handbook of Political Theory (2004) p. 422</ref> and progress.<ref>Hunt, p. 54</ref>


Classical liberalism sections
Intro  Meaning of the term  Evolution of core beliefs  History  Intellectual sources  Political economy  Free trade and world peace  Modern influence   See also   Notes  References  

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