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Republic of Chile
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Flag Coat of arms
Motto: {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
Anthem: 
National Anthem of Chile
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Chile shown in dark green; claimed but unrecognised Antarctic Territory shown in light green.
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Capital
and largest city</td>
Santiagoa
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National language Spanish</td> </tr>
Demonym Chilean</td> </tr>
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic</td> </tr>
 - </td> President</td> Michelle Bachelet</td> </tr>
Legislature National Congress</td> </tr>
 - </td> Upper house</td> Senate</td> </tr>
 - </td> Lower house</td> Chamber of Deputies</td> </tr>
Independence from Spain
 - </td> First Government Junta</td> 18 September 1810 </td> </tr>
 - </td> Declared</td> 12 February 1818 </td> </tr>
 - </td> Recognized</td> 25 April 1844 </td> </tr>
 - </td> Current constitution</td> 11 September 1980 (amended in 1989 and 2005) </td> </tr>
Area
 - </td> Total</td> 756,096.3 km2 (38th)
291,930.4 sq mi</td> </tr>
 - </td> Water (%)</td> 1.07b</td> </tr>
Population
 - </td> 2015 estimate</td> 18,006,407<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web }}</ref> (62nd)</td>

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 - </td> 2012 census</td> 16,341,929<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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 - </td> Density</td> 24/km2 (194th)
61/sq mi</td> </tr>
GDP (PPP)</td> 2014 estimate</td>
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 - </td> Total</td> $410.277 billion<ref name="imf">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web }}</ref> (42nd)</td>

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 - </td> Per capita</td> $23,165<ref name="imf" /> (53rd)</td> </tr>
GDP (nominal)</td> 2014 estimate</td>
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 - </td> Total</td> $264.095 billion<ref name="imf" /> (38th)</td> </tr>
 - </td> Per capita</td> $14,911<ref name="imf" /> (49th)</td> </tr>
Gini (2011)</td>positive decrease 50.3<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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high</td>

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HDI (2013)</td>Increase 0.822<ref name="HDI">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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very high · 41st</td>

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Currency Peso (CLP)</td> </tr>
Time zone CLT and EASTc (UTC−3 and −5)</td> </tr>
Drives on the right</td> </tr>
Calling code +56</td> </tr>
ISO 3166 code CL</td> </tr>
Internet TLD .cl</td> </tr>
a.</td> Legislature is based in Valparaíso.</td> </tr>
b.</td> Includes Easter Island and Isla Sala y Gómez; does not include {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} of territory claimed in Antarctica.</td>
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Map of the three areas dividing the Chilean territory:
In blue: Continental Chile.
In red: Insular Chile.
In green: Antarctic Chile.

Chile ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}};<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Spanish: [ˈtʃile]), officially the Republic of Chile (Spanish: About this sound República de Chile ), is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}} of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.

The arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The relatively small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, and is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands.<ref name="USDoS">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Spain conquered and colonised Chile in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in northern and central Chile, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche that inhabited south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific (1879–83) after defeating Peru and Bolivia.<ref name=factbook>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil. This development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing.<ref name="BBC-Chile"/> The regime headed by Augusto Pinochet ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a centre-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.

Chile is today one of South America's most stable and prosperous nations.<ref name="BBC-Chile"/> It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, state of peace, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption.<ref name="hdrstats.undp.org">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> It also ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, and democratic development.<ref name="wdi">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States.

Etymology

There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief ("cacique") called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="encina">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili.<ref name="encina"/>

Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls";<ref></ref> from the Mapuche word chilli, which may mean "where the land ends;"<ref name="hudson">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> or from the Quechua chiri, "cold",<ref name="1911britannica">"CHILE". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11th ed. 1911. ("derived, it is said, from the Quichua chiri, cold, or tchili, snow")</ref> or tchili, meaning either "snow"<ref name="1911britannica"/><ref></ref> or "the deepest point of the Earth".<ref></ref> Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile.<ref name="hudson"/><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, and the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli".<ref name="hudson"/> Ultimately, Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such.<ref name="encina"/> The older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching over to "Chile".<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>


Chile sections
Intro  History  Geography, climate, and environment  Demographics   Government and politics   Military  Economy  Education  Health  Culture  See also  References  Further reading  External links  

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