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Child mortality {{#invoke:main|main}}

World infant mortality rates in 2012.<ref name=unicef2013>Infant Mortality Rates in 2012, UNICEF, 2013.</ref>

During the early 17th century in England, average life expectancy was only about 35 years, largely because two-thirds of all children died before the age of four.<ref>W. J. Rorabaugh, Donald T. Critchlow, Paula C. Baker (2004). "America's promise: a concise history of the United States". Rowman & Littlefield. p.47. ISBN 0-7425-1189-8</ref> During the Industrial Revolution, the life expectancy of children increased dramatically.<ref>"Modernization - Population Change". Encyclopædia Britannica.</ref>

According to population health experts, child mortality rates have fallen sharply since the 1990s. About 12.6 million under-five infants died annually worldwide in 1990, which has declined to 6.6 million infant deaths in 2012. The infant mortality rate has dropped from 90 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990, to 48 in 2012. The highest average infant mortality rates are in Sub-Saharan Africa, at 98 deaths per 1,000 live births - nearly double the world's average of 48.<ref name=unicef2013/>


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Child mortality
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