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Composition {{#invoke:main|main}} Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems (the problems themselves are sometimes also called chess compositions). A person who creates such problems is known as a chess composer.<ref>Howard (1961)</ref> There are many types of chess problems. The two most important are:

  • Directmates: white to move first and checkmate black within a specified number of moves against any defense. These are often referred to as "mate in n" – for example "mate in three" (a three-mover); two and three move problems are the most common. These usually involve positions which would be highly unlikely to occur in an actual game, and are intended to illustrate a particular "theme", usually requiring a surprising or counter-intuitive "key move".<ref>Hooper & Whyld (1992), p. 110</ref>
  • Studies: orthodox problems in which the stipulation is that white to play must win or draw. Almost all studies are endgame positions.<ref>Hooper & Whyld (1992), pp. 400–401</ref>

Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport, and tournaments (or tourneys) exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems.<ref>Weenink (1926)</ref>



{{#invoke:main|main}} This is one of the most famous chess studies; it was published by Richard Réti in 1921. It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn, while the black king can easily stop the white pawn. The solution is a diagonal advance, which brings the king to both pawns simultaneously:

1. Kg7! h4 2. Kf6! Kb6

Or 2...h3 3.Ke7 and the white king can support its pawn.

3. Ke5!!

Now the white king comes just in time to support his pawn, or catch the black one.

3... h3 4. Kd6 draw<ref>de la Villa (2008), pp.179–80</ref>

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