::Charge-coupled device


Device::image    Charge::light    Cameras::pixel    First::imaging    EMCCD::sensor    Devices::transfer

A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire-bonded package

A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value. This is achieved by "shifting" the signals between stages within the device one at a time. CCDs move charge between capacitive bins in the device, with the shift allowing for the transfer of charge between bins.

The CCD is a major piece of technology in digital imaging. In a CCD image sensor, pixels are represented by p-doped MOS capacitors. These capacitors are biased above the threshold for inversion when image acquisition begins, allowing the conversion of incoming photons into electron charges at the semiconductor-oxide interface; the CCD is then used to read out these charges. Although CCDs are not the only technology to allow for light detection, CCD image sensors are widely used in professional, medical, and scientific applications where high-quality image data is required. In applications with less exacting quality demands, such as consumer and professional digital cameras, active pixel sensors (CMOS) are generally used; the large quality advantage CCDs enjoyed early on has narrowed over time.

Charge-coupled device sections
Intro  History  Basics of operation  Detailed physics of operation  Architecture  Use in astronomy  Color cameras  Electron-multiplying CCD  Frame transfer CCD  Intensified charge-coupled device  See also  References  External links  

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