::Cell (biology)

::concepts



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Structure of an animal cell

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room"<ref name="etymonline1">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. Cells are the smallest unit of life that can replicate independently, and are often called the "building blocks of life". The study of cells is called cell biology.

Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.<ref name="Alberts2002">Cell Movements and the Shaping of the Vertebrate Body in Chapter 21 of Molecular Biology of the Cell fourth edition, edited by Bruce Alberts (2002) published by Garland Science.
The Alberts text discusses how the "cellular building blocks" move to shape developing embryos. It is also common to describe small molecules such as amino acids as "molecular building blocks".</ref> Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion (1013) cells.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} Most plant and animal cells are visible only under the microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665, who named the biological unit for its resemblance to cells inhabited by Christian monks in a monastery.<ref name="Karp2009">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, that cells are the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms, that all cells come from preexisting cells, and that all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Cells emerged on Earth at least 3.5 billion years ago.<ref name="Origin1"/><ref name="Origin2"/><ref name="RavenJohnson2002"/>


Cell (biology) sections
Intro  Anatomy  Subcellular components  Structures outside the cell membrane  Cellular processes  Multicellularity  History of research  See also  References  Bibliography  External links  

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Cells::membrane    Nucleus::which    First::title    Called::protein    Journal::biology    Biology::author

{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:Pp-move-indef|main}} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}}{{safesubst:#invoke:Check for unknown parameters|check|unknown= | Type | type | Name | neuron_name | name | MapPosIGNORE_PARAMETER | MapIGNORE_PARAMETER | TA98IGNORE_PARAMETER | ImageMap | Imagemap | image_map | MapWidth | map_caption | MapCaption | Image | image | image_neuron | Width | image_size | Alt | alt | Caption | caption | caption_neuron | Image2 | image2 | Width2 | image2_size | Alt2 | alt2 | Caption2 | caption2 | caption2_neuron | Latin | Greek | part_of | PartOf | is_part_of | IsPartOf | CarnegieStage | days | Days | system | System | components | Components | location | function | neurotransmitter | morphology | afferents | efferents | Origin | Origins | origin | origins | Insertion | Insertions | insertion | insertions | Articulation | Articulations | articulations | Supplies | DrainsFrom | Drainsfrom | BranchFrom | Branchfrom | Source | source | DrainsTo | Drainsto | BranchTo | Branchto | Blood | blood | artery | Artery | vein | Vein | nerve | Nerve | NerveRoot | lymph | Lymph | Action | action | PhysicalExam | Antagonist | precursor | Precursor | gives_rise_to | GivesRiseTo | From | To | Innervates | FiberType | acronym | Acronym | code | Code | BrainInfoType | BrainInfoNumber | NeuroLex | NeuroLexID | Dorlands | DorlandsID | DorlandsPre | DorlandsSuf | TH | TE | FMA | MeshName | Meshname | MeSHname | MeshYear | MeshNumber | BamsSlug | GraySubject | GrayPage}}

Structure of an animal cell

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room"<ref name="etymonline1">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. Cells are the smallest unit of life that can replicate independently, and are often called the "building blocks of life". The study of cells is called cell biology.

Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.<ref name="Alberts2002">Cell Movements and the Shaping of the Vertebrate Body in Chapter 21 of Molecular Biology of the Cell fourth edition, edited by Bruce Alberts (2002) published by Garland Science.
The Alberts text discusses how the "cellular building blocks" move to shape developing embryos. It is also common to describe small molecules such as amino acids as "molecular building blocks".</ref> Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion (1013) cells.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} Most plant and animal cells are visible only under the microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665, who named the biological unit for its resemblance to cells inhabited by Christian monks in a monastery.<ref name="Karp2009">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, that cells are the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms, that all cells come from preexisting cells, and that all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> Cells emerged on Earth at least 3.5 billion years ago.<ref name="Origin1"/><ref name="Origin2"/><ref name="RavenJohnson2002"/>


Cell (biology) sections
Intro  Anatomy  Subcellular components  Structures outside the cell membrane  Cellular processes  Multicellularity  History of research  See also  References  Bibliography  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Anatomy
<<>>