::Byzantine Empire


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{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=EngvarB |date=__DATE__ |$B= }}

="3" class="fn org summary" style="text-align:center; line-height:1.2em; font-size:115%; font-weight:bold;" Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}
Basileía Rhōmaíōna
Imperium Romanum {{#invoke:Category handler|main}} ="3" class="maptable" style="text-align:center"
Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great
(r. 527–565) (see Byzantine insignia) ="3" style="text-align:center; font-size:95%; padding:0.6em 0em 0.6em 0em;"
The Empire at its greatest extent in 555 AD under
Justinian the Great (its vassals in pink)

="2" Capital ="width:50%;" Constantinople

="2" Languages
  • Latin (official until 610)
  • Greek (official after 610)
="2" ReligionChristianity/Eastern Orthodox
(tolerated after the Edict of Milan in 313; state religion after 380) ="2" Emperor || - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" •  ="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 330–337 Constantine I - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"457–474 Leo I - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"527–565 Justinian I - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"610–641 Heraclius - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"976–1025 Basil II - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1081–1118 Alexius I - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1259–1282 Michael VIII - class="mergedbottomrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  • ||style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;"1449–1453 Constantine XI - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Partition of the Roman Empire ="vertical-align: bottom;"285 ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Death of Theodosius I ="vertical-align: bottom;"395 ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Nominal end of the Western Roman Empire ="vertical-align: bottom;"476 ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Fourth Crusade ="vertical-align: bottom;"1204 ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Reconquest of Constantinople ="vertical-align: bottom;"1261 ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" • ||style="padding-left:0em;text-align:left;"Fall of Trebizond ="vertical-align: bottom;"15 August 1461 - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" - class="mergedbottomrow" ="3" Population ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  •  ="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 565 AD est. 26,000,000b  - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  •  ="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 780 AD est. 7,000,000  - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  •  ="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 1025 AD est. 12,000,000  - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  •  ="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 1143 AD est. 10,000,000  - class="mergedrow" ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;"  •  ="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" 1204 AD est. 9,000,000  - class="mergedbottomrow" ="2" CurrencySolidus, Hyperpyron and Follis ="width:1.0em; padding:0.4em 0 0 0.6em;" a. ||colspan="2" style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" ^ Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} may be transliterated in Latin as Basileia Rhōmaiōn, meaning Roman Empire. ="width:1.0em; padding:0 0 0 0.6em;" b. ||colspan="2" style="padding-left:0;text-align:left;" ^ See Population of the Byzantine Empire for more detailed figures taken provided by McEvedy and Jones, Atlas of World Population History, 1978, as well as Angeliki E. Laiou, The Economic History of Byzantium, 2002.
Byzantine Empire
Dio coin3.jpg
c. 330 – 1453
primary name=


Government Autocratic monarchy
Historical era Late Antiquity to Late Middle Ages
 •  Founding of Constantinople 330
 •  Fall of Constantinople 29 May 1453

The Byzantine Empire or Eastern Roman Empire was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), originally founded as Byzantium. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 under the reign of Mehmed the Conqueror. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roman Empire (Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, tr. Basileia tôn Rhōmaiōn; Latin: Imperium Romanum{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}),{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} or Romania (Ῥωμανία{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}), and to themselves as "Romans".Unknown extension tag "ref"

Several events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the transitional period during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West divided. In 285, the Emperor Diocletian (r. 284–305) partitioned the Roman Empire's administration into eastern and western halves.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} Between 324 and 330, Constantine the Great (r. 306–337) transferred the main capital from Rome to Byzantium, later known as Constantinople ("City of Constantine") and Nova Roma ("New Rome").Unknown extension tag "ref" Under Theodosius I (r. 379–395), Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and others such as Roman polytheism were proscribed. And finally, under the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641), the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin.Unknown extension tag "ref" Thus, although it continued the Roman state and maintained Roman state traditions, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, and characterised by Orthodox Christianity rather than Roman polytheism.Unknown extension tag "ref"

The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I (r. 527–565), the Empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the historically Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa, Italy, and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries. During the reign of Maurice (r. 582–602), the Empire's eastern frontier was expanded and the north stabilised. However, his assassination caused the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, which exhausted the Empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Muslim conquests of the seventh century. In a matter of years the Empire lost its richest provinces, Egypt and Syria, to the Arabs.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

During the Macedonian dynasty (10th–11th centuries), the Empire again expanded and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia as a homeland.

The final centuries of the Empire exhibited a general trend of decline. It struggled to recover during the 12th century, but was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the Empire formerly governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence. Its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire.<ref></ref>

Byzantine Empire sections
Intro   Nomenclature    History    Economy    Science, medicine and law    Religion    Art and literature    Music    Cuisine and recreation    Government and bureaucracy    Language    Legacy    See also    Annotations    Notes    References    Further reading    External links   

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