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Bulgaria::title    December::first    Https::european    Books::national    Language::march    Sofia::europe

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Republic of Bulgaria
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Flag Coat of arms
Motto: {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
Anthem: 
Мила Родино{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}  (Bulgarian)
Mila Rodino{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(transliteration)
Dear Motherland
Location of  Bulgaria{{#invoke:String
Location of  Bulgaria{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(dark green)

– in Europe{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(green & dark grey)
– in the European Union{{#invoke:String|rep| |2}}(green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Sofia
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Official languages Bulgarian
Official script Cyrillic
Ethnic groups (2011<ref>2011 census, p. 4.</ref>) {{safesubst:#invoke:list|unbulleted}}
Demonym Bulgarian
Government Unitary parliamentary republic
 -  President Rosen Plevneliev
 -  Prime Minister Boyko Borisov
Legislature National Assembly
Formation
 -  Medieval states:  
 -  First Bulgarian Empire 680-1018 
 -  Second Bulgarian Empire 1185-1422 
 -  Modern state:  
 -  Principality of Bulgaria 3 March 1878Unknown extension tag "ref" 
 -  Independence Day After Final Defeat of the Ottoman Empire 5 October 1908Unknown extension tag "ref" 
Area
 -  Total 117,000 km2 (95th)
45,000 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 2
Population
 -  2011 census 7,364,570<ref name="2011 census, p. 3"/> (95th)
 -  Density 66.2/km2 (95th)
171/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $128.053 billion<ref name=imf2/> (66th)
 -  Per capita $17,869<ref name=imf2/> (67th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $57.596 billion<ref name=imf2/> (75th)
 -  Per capita $8,037<ref name=imf2/> (76th)
Gini (2013)negative increase 35.4<ref name=eurogini>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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medium
HDI (2013)Steady 0.777<ref name="UNDP2014">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

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high · 58th
Currency Lev (BGN)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Calling code +359
ISO 3166 code BG
Internet TLD .bg

Bulgaria ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}, {{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; Bulgarian: България{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, tr. Bǎlgarija, IPA: [bɐɫˈɡarijɐ]), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Република България{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, tr. Republika Bǎlgarija), is a country in southeastern Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. With a territory of {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}}, Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country.

Organised prehistoric cultures began developing on Bulgarian lands during the Neolithic period. Its ancient history saw the presence of the Thracians and later the Persians,<ref name="A companion to Ancient Macedonia">Joseph Roisman,Ian Worthington. "A companion to Ancient Macedonia" John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN 144435163X pp 135-138, pp 343-345</ref> Greeks and Romans. The emergence of a unified Bulgarian state dates back to the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 681 AD, which dominated most of the Balkans and functioned as a cultural hub for Slavs during the Middle Ages. With the downfall of the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1396, its territories came under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) led to the formation of the Third Bulgarian State. The following years saw several conflicts with its neighbours, which prompted Bulgaria to align with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 it became a single-party socialist state as part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc. In December 1989 the ruling Communist Party allowed multi-party elections, which subsequently led to Bulgaria's transition into a democracy and a market-based economy.

Bulgaria's population of 7.4 million people is predominantly urbanised and mainly concentrated in the administrative centres of its 28 provinces. Most commercial and cultural activities are centred on the capital and largest city, Sofia. The strongest sectors of the economy are heavy industry, power engineering, and agriculture, all of which rely on local natural resources.

The country's current political structure dates to the adoption of a democratic constitution in 1991. Bulgaria is a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation. It is a member of the European Union, NATO, and the Council of Europe; a founding state of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE); and has taken a seat at the UN Security Council three times.


Bulgaria sections
Intro  History  Geography  Politics  Economy  Demographics  Culture  See also  Footnotes  References  Bibliography  External links  

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