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::Bubonic plague

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Plague::plague    Title::disease    Death::first    Black::bubonic    Infected::bubonic    Location::spread

{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:Protection banner|main}} {{#invoke:Pp-move-indef|main}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} Bubonic plague is one of three types of bacterial infection caused by Yersinia pestis.<ref name=WHO2014/> Three to seven days after exposure to the bacteria flu like symptoms develop. This includes fever, headaches, and vomiting.<ref name=WHO2014/> Swollen and painful lymph nodes occur in the area closest to where the bacteria entered the skin.<ref name=CDC2012Sym>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Occasionally the swollen lymph nodes may break open.<ref name=WHO2014/>

The three types of plague are the result of the route of infection: bubonic plague, septicemic plague, and pneumonic plague. Bubonic plague is mainly spread by infected fleas from small animals.<ref name=WHO2014/> It may also result from exposure to the body fluids from a dead plague infected animal.<ref name=CDC2012Tran>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> In the bubonic form of plague, the bacteria enter through the skin through a flea bite and travels via the lymphatic vessels to a lymph node, causing it to swell. Diagnosis is by finding the bacteria in the blood, sputum, or fluid from lymph nodes.<ref name=WHO2014/>

Prevention is through public health measures such as not handling dead animals in areas where plague is common. Vaccines have not been found to be very useful for plague prevention.<ref name=WHO2014/> Several antibiotics are effective for treatment including streptomycin, gentamicin, or doxycycline.<ref name=Lancet2007>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref><ref name=CDC2012Tx>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Without treatment it results in the death of 30% to 90% of those infected.<ref name=WHO2014/><ref name=Lancet2007/> Death if it occurs is typically within ten days.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> With treatment the risk of death is around 10%.<ref name=Lancet2007/> Globally in 2013 there were about 750 documented cases which resulted in 126 deaths.<ref name=WHO2014/> The disease is most common in Africa.<ref name=WHO2014>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Plague is believed to be the cause of the Black Death that swept through Asia, Europe, and Africa in the 14th century and killed an estimated 50 million people.<ref name=WHO2014/> This was about 25% to 60% of the European population.<ref name=WHO2014/><ref name=CDC2012Hx/> Because the plague killed so many of the working population, wages rose due to the demand for labor. Some historians see this as a turning point in European economic development.<ref name=CDC2012Hx>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The term bubonic plague is derived from the Greek word βουβών, meaning "groin".<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>


Bubonic plague sections
Intro  Signs and symptoms  Cause  Diagnosis  Treatment  History  Biological warfare  See also  Footnotes  References  Further reading   External links   

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