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Federative Republic of Brazil
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Flag Coat of arms
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National seal

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Largest city São Paulo
Official languages Portuguese<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation

|CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>Libras, Brazilian Portuguese sign language, is officially recognized as a legal means of communication in {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web

Ethnic groups (2010<ref name="raca2010">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


Demonym Brazilian
Government Federal presidential constitutional republic
 -  President Dilma Rousseff
 -  Vice President Michel Temer
 -  President of the
Chamber of Deputies
Eduardo Cunha
 -  President of the Federal Senate Renan Calheiros
 -  President of the Supreme Federal Court Ricardo Lewandowski
Legislature National Congress
 -  Upper house Federal Senate
 -  Lower house Chamber of Deputies
Independence from United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
 -  Declared 7 September 1822 
 -  Recognized 29 August 1825 
 -  Republic 15 November 1889 
 -  Current constitution 5 October 1988 
 -  Total 8,515,767 km2 (5th)
3,287,597 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 0.65
 -  2015 estimate 204,451,000<ref>"Brazil". IMF population estimates.</ref> (5th)
 -  Density 23.8/km2 (190th)
62/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $3.259 trillion<ref name=imf/><ref name="IMF,April 2015">IMF,April 2015</ref> (7th)
 -  Per capita $15,941<ref name=imf/> (74th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $1.799 <ref>IMF, October 2015</ref> (9th)
 -  Per capita $9,312<ref name=imf/> (60th)
Gini (2012)positive decrease 51.9<ref name="2012ciagini">Country Comparison to the World: Gini Index – Brazil The World Factbook. Retrieved on 3 April 2012.</ref>
HDI (2013)Increase 0.744<ref name="HDI">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation


high · 79th
Currency Real (R$) (BRL)
Time zone BRT (UTC−2 to −5)
 -  Summer (DST) BRST (UTC−2 to −5)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Drives on the right
Calling code +55
ISO 3166 code BR
Internet TLD .br
a. Multiracial

Brazil ({{#invoke:IPAc-en|main}}; Portuguese: Brasil{{#invoke:Category handler|main}} [bɾaˈziw] <ref>The European Portuguese pronunciation is IPA: [bɾɐˈziɫ]</ref>), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}, About this sound listen  <ref name="Bello1966v">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>), is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region. It is the world's fifth-largest country, both by geographical area and by population.<ref name="Philander2012">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> It is the largest Portuguese-speaking country in the world, and the only one in the Americas.<ref name="CrocittiVallance2011">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref>

Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of {{safesubst:#invoke:convert|convert}}.<ref name="CIA Geo"/> It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and occupies 47.3 percent of the continent of South America.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats.<ref name="CIA Geo">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.

Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a federal republic.<ref name="Constituição">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }} {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, and the 5,570 municipalities.

Brazil's economy is the world's ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP (PPP) as of 2015.<ref>IMF, October 2015</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the world's fastest growing major economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition and influence.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> Brazil's national development bank plays an important role for the country's economic growth.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Unasul, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, CPLP and the Latin Union. Brazil is a regional power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs,<ref name="Seelke2010">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> with some analysts identifying it as an emerging global power.<ref name="DominguezKim2013">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> One of the world's major breadbaskets, Brazil has been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years.<ref name=Neilson102/>

Brazil sections
Intro  Etymology  History  Geography  Government and politics  Economy  Infrastructure  Demographics  Culture  See also  References  Bibliography  Further reading  External links  

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