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{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} A brain tumor or intracranial neoplasm occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.<ref name=PDQ2014Pt>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors.<ref name=PDQ2014Pt/> Cancerous tumors can be divided into primary tumors that start within the brain, and secondary tumors that have spread from somewhere else, known as brain metastasis tumors.<ref name=PDQ2014MD/> This article deals mainly with tumors that start within the brain. All types of brain tumors may produce symptoms that vary depending on the part of the brain involved.<ref name=PDQ2014Pt/> These may include headaches, seizures, problem with vision, vomiting, and mental changes.<ref name=PDQ2014MD>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> The headache is classically worst in the morning and goes away with vomiting.<ref name=PDQ2014Pt/> More specific problems may include difficulty in walking, speaking and with sensation.<ref name=PDQ2014MD/><ref name=WCR2014CNS/> As the disease progresses unconsciousness may occur.<ref name=WCR2014CNS/>

The cause of most brain tumors is unknown.<ref name=PDQ2014Pt/> Risk factors that may occasionally be involved include a number of inherited conditions known as neurofibromatosis as well as exposure to the industrial chemical vinyl chloride, the Epstein-Barr virus, and ionizing radiation.<ref name=PDQ2014Pt/><ref name=PDQ2014MD/><ref name=WCR2014CNS/> While concern has been raised about mobile phone use, the evidence is not clear.<ref name=WCR2014CNS/> The most common types of primary tumors in adults are: meningiomas (usually benign), and astrocytomas such as glioblastomas.<ref name=PDQ2014MD/> In children, the most common type is a malignant medulloblastoma.<ref name=WCR2014CNS/> Diagnosis is usually by medical examination along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.<ref name=PDQ2014Pt/> This is then often confirmed by a biopsy.<ref name=PDQ2014MD/> Based on the findings, the tumors are divided into different grades of severity.<ref name=PDQ2014MD/>

Treatment may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.<ref name=PDQ2014MD/> Anticonvulsant medication may be needed if seizures occur.<ref name=PDQ2014MD/> Dexamethasone and furosemide may be used to decrease swelling around the tumor.<ref name=PDQ2014MD/> Some tumors grow gradually, requiring only monitoring and possibly needing no further intervention.<ref name=PDQ2014MD/> Treatments that use a person's immune system are being studied.<ref name=PDQ2014Pt/> Outcome varies considerably depending on the type of tumor and how far it has spread at diagnosis.<ref name=WCR2014CNS/> Glioblastomas usually have poor outcomes while meningiomas usually have good outcomes.<ref name=WCR2014CNS/> The average five-year survival rate for brain cancer in the United States is 33%.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Secondary or metastatic brain tumors are more common than primary brain tumors,<ref name=PDQ2014Pt/> with about half of metastases coming from lung cancer.<ref name=PDQ2014Pt/> Primary brain tumors occur in around 250,000 people a year globally, making up less than 2% of cancers.<ref name=WCR2014CNS>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> In children younger than 15, brain tumors are second only to acute lymphoblastic leukemia as a cause of cancer.<ref name=WCR2014Peads>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> In Australia the average economic cost of a case of brain cancer is Brain tumour.9 million, the greatest of any type of cancer.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


Brain tumor sections
Intro  Signs and symptoms  Cause  Pathophysiology  Diagnosis  Treatment  Prognosis  Epidemiology  Research  Children  See also  References  External links  

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{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |$B= }} {{#invoke:Infobox|infobox}} A brain tumor or intracranial neoplasm occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.<ref name=PDQ2014Pt>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors.<ref name=PDQ2014Pt/> Cancerous tumors can be divided into primary tumors that start within the brain, and secondary tumors that have spread from somewhere else, known as brain metastasis tumors.<ref name=PDQ2014MD/> This article deals mainly with tumors that start within the brain. All types of brain tumors may produce symptoms that vary depending on the part of the brain involved.<ref name=PDQ2014Pt/> These may include headaches, seizures, problem with vision, vomiting, and mental changes.<ref name=PDQ2014MD>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> The headache is classically worst in the morning and goes away with vomiting.<ref name=PDQ2014Pt/> More specific problems may include difficulty in walking, speaking and with sensation.<ref name=PDQ2014MD/><ref name=WCR2014CNS/> As the disease progresses unconsciousness may occur.<ref name=WCR2014CNS/>

The cause of most brain tumors is unknown.<ref name=PDQ2014Pt/> Risk factors that may occasionally be involved include a number of inherited conditions known as neurofibromatosis as well as exposure to the industrial chemical vinyl chloride, the Epstein-Barr virus, and ionizing radiation.<ref name=PDQ2014Pt/><ref name=PDQ2014MD/><ref name=WCR2014CNS/> While concern has been raised about mobile phone use, the evidence is not clear.<ref name=WCR2014CNS/> The most common types of primary tumors in adults are: meningiomas (usually benign), and astrocytomas such as glioblastomas.<ref name=PDQ2014MD/> In children, the most common type is a malignant medulloblastoma.<ref name=WCR2014CNS/> Diagnosis is usually by medical examination along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.<ref name=PDQ2014Pt/> This is then often confirmed by a biopsy.<ref name=PDQ2014MD/> Based on the findings, the tumors are divided into different grades of severity.<ref name=PDQ2014MD/>

Treatment may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.<ref name=PDQ2014MD/> Anticonvulsant medication may be needed if seizures occur.<ref name=PDQ2014MD/> Dexamethasone and furosemide may be used to decrease swelling around the tumor.<ref name=PDQ2014MD/> Some tumors grow gradually, requiring only monitoring and possibly needing no further intervention.<ref name=PDQ2014MD/> Treatments that use a person's immune system are being studied.<ref name=PDQ2014Pt/> Outcome varies considerably depending on the type of tumor and how far it has spread at diagnosis.<ref name=WCR2014CNS/> Glioblastomas usually have poor outcomes while meningiomas usually have good outcomes.<ref name=WCR2014CNS/> The average five-year survival rate for brain cancer in the United States is 33%.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Secondary or metastatic brain tumors are more common than primary brain tumors,<ref name=PDQ2014Pt/> with about half of metastases coming from lung cancer.<ref name=PDQ2014Pt/> Primary brain tumors occur in around 250,000 people a year globally, making up less than 2% of cancers.<ref name=WCR2014CNS>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> In children younger than 15, brain tumors are second only to acute lymphoblastic leukemia as a cause of cancer.<ref name=WCR2014Peads>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> In Australia the average economic cost of a case of brain cancer is $1.9 million, the greatest of any type of cancer.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


Brain tumor sections
Intro  Signs and symptoms  Cause  Pathophysiology  Diagnosis  Treatment  Prognosis  Epidemiology  Research  Children  See also  References  External links  

PREVIOUS: IntroNEXT: Signs and symptoms
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