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Environment

Environmental record

Researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst had listed Boeing as the thirteenth-largest corporate producer of air pollution in the United States based on 2002 data,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> although data from 2008 shows that they have dropped off the list.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> According to the Center for Public Integrity, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has linked Boeing to more than twenty Superfund toxic waste sites.<ref>Center for Public Integrity{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[dead link] }}</ref>

In 2006, the UCLA Center for Environmental Risk Reduction released a study showing that Boeing's Santa Susana Field Laboratory, in the Simi Hills of eastern Ventura County in Southern California, had been contaminated with toxic and radioactive waste. The study found that air, soil, groundwater, and surface water at the site all contained radionuclides, toxic metals, and dioxins; air and water additionally contained perchlorate, TCE, and hydrazines, while water showed the presence of PCBs as well.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> Clean up studies and lawsuits are in progress.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Jet biofuels

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The airline industry is responsible for about 11 percent of greenhouse gases emitted by the U.S. transportation sector.<ref name="boe_energy"/> Aviation's share of the greenhouse gas emissions is poised to grow, as air travel increases and ground vehicles use more alternative fuels like ethanol and biodiesel.<ref name="boe_energy"/> Boeing estimates that biofuels could reduce flight-related greenhouse-gas emissions by 60 to 80 percent.<ref name="boe_energy"/> The solution blends algae fuels with existing jet fuel.<ref name="boe_energy">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref>

Boeing executives said the company is informally collaborating with leading Brazilian biofuels maker Tecbio, Aquaflow Bionomic of New Zealand and other fuel developers around the world. So far, Boeing has tested six fuels from these companies, and will probably have gone through 20 fuels "by the time we're done evaluating them."<ref name="boe_energy"/> Boeing was also joining other aviation-related members in the Algal Biomass Organization (ABO) on June 2008.<ref>First Airlines and UOP Join Algal Biomass Organization, Green Car Congress, June 19, 2008.</ref>

Air New Zealand and Boeing are researching the jatropha plant to see if it is a sustainable alternative to conventional fuel.<ref>Air NZ sees biofuel salvation in jatropha{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[dead link] }}.</ref> A two-hour test flight using a 50–50 mixture of the new biofuel with Jet A-1 in the number one position Rolls Royce RB-211 engine of 747–400 ZK-NBS, was successfully completed on December 30, 2008. The engine was then removed to be scrutinised and studied to identify any differences between the Jatropha blend and regular Jet A1. No effects to performances were found.

On August 31, 2010, Boeing worked with the U.S. Air Force to test the Boeing C-17 running on 50 percent JP-8, 25 percent Hydro-treated Renewable Jet fuel and 25 percent of a Fischer–Tropsch fuel with successful results.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Electric propulsion

For NASA's N+3 future airliner program, Boeing has determined that hybrid electric engine technology is by far the best choice for its subsonic design. Hybrid electric propulsion has the potential to shorten takeoff distance and reduce noise.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


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Environment
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