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Cultural differences::Big Five personality traits

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Cultural differences {{#invoke:main|main}} The Big Five have been replicated in a variety of languages and cultures, such as German,<ref>Ostendorf, F. (1990). Sprache und Persoenlichkeitsstruktur: Zur Validitaet des Funf-Factoren-Modells der Persoenlichkeit. Regensburg, Germany: S. Roderer Verlag.{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Page needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[page needed] }}</ref> Chinese,<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Indian,<ref>Lodhi, P. H., Deo, S., & Belhekar, V. M. (2002). The Five-Factor model of personality in Indian context: measurement and correlates. In R. R. McCrae & J. Allik (Eds.), The Five-Factor model of personality across cultures (pp. 227–248). N.Y.: Kluwer Academic Publisher</ref> etc.<ref>McCrae, R. R. (2002). NEO-PI-R data from 36 cultures: Further Intercultural comparisons. In R. R. McCrae & J. Alik. (Eds.), The Five-Factor model of personality across cultures (pp. 105–125). New York: Kluwer Academic Publisher.</ref> For example, Thompson has demonstrated the Big Five structure across several cultures using an international English language scale.<ref name="Thompson">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Cheung, van de Vijver, and Leong (2011) suggest, however, that the Openness factor is particularly unsupported in Asian countries and that a different fifth factor is sometimes identified.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

Recent work has found relationships between Geert Hofstede’s cultural factors, Individualism, Power Distance, Masculinity, and Uncertainty Avoidance, with the average Big Five scores in a country.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> For instance, the degree to which a country values individualism correlates with its average extraversion, whereas people living in cultures which are accepting of large inequalities in their power structures tend to score somewhat higher on conscientiousness. Although this is an active area of research, the reasons for these differences are as yet unknown.{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}

Attempts to replicate the Big Five in other countries with local dictionaries have succeeded in some countries but not in others. Apparently, for instance, Hungarians do not appear to have a single agreeableness factor.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> Other researchers have found evidence for agreeableness but not for other factors.<ref name="PMID 15358876">{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>


Big Five personality traits sections
Intro  Five factors  History  Biological and developmental factors  Group differences  Cultural differences  Relationships  Non-humans  Measurements  Critique  See also   References   External links  

Cultural differences
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