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Manuscript {{#invoke:main|main}}

Remounted page, British Library Cotton Vitellius A.XV

Beowulf survives in a single manuscript dated on paleographical grounds to the late 10th or early 11th century. The manuscript measures 245 × 185 mm.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>


The earliest known owner of the Beowulf manuscript, the 16th-century scholar Laurence Nowell, lends his name to the manuscript (Nowell Codex), though its official designation is "British Library, Cotton Vitellius A.XV" because it was one of Sir Robert Bruce Cotton's holdings in the Cotton library in the middle of the 17th century. Many private antiquarians and book collectors, such as Sir Robert Cotton, used their own library classification systems. "Cotton Vitellius A.XV" translates as: the 15th book from the left on shelf A (the top shelf) of the bookcase with the bust of Roman Emperor Vitellius standing on top of it, in Cotton's collection. Kevin Kiernan argues that Nowell most likely acquired it through William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, in 1563, when Nowell entered Cecil's household as a tutor to his ward, Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford.<ref name="Kiernan2" />{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Page needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[page needed] }}

It suffered damage in the Cotton Library fire at Ashburnham House in 1731. Since then, parts of the manuscript have crumbled along with many of the letters. Rebinding efforts, though saving the manuscript from much degeneration, have nonetheless covered up other letters of the poem, causing further loss. Kevin Kiernan, in preparing his electronic edition of the manuscript, used fibre-optic backlighting and ultraviolet lighting to reveal letters in the manuscript lost from binding, erasure, or ink blotting.<ref name="KiernanE">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

The poem is known only from this single manuscript, which is estimated to date from close to AD 1000. Kiernan has argued from an examination of the manuscript that it was the author's own working copy. He dated the work to the reign of Cnut the Great<ref name="Kiernan2" /> (1016–35). The poem appears in what is today called the Beowulf manuscript or Nowell Codex (British Library MS Cotton Vitellius A.xv), along with other works. The earliest extant reference to the first foliation of the Nowell Codex was made sometime between 1628 and 1650 by Franciscus Junius (the younger).<ref name="Kiernan2">{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation_no_bracket}}</ref>{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Page needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[page needed] }} The ownership of the codex before Nowell remains a mystery.<ref name="Kiernan2" />{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Page needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[page needed] }}

The Reverend Thomas Smith (1638–1710) and Humfrey Wanley (1672–1726) both catalogued the Cotton library (in which the Nowell Codex was held). Smith's catalogue appeared in 1696, and Wanley's in 1705.<ref name=Joy>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> The Beowulf manuscript itself is identified by name for the first time in an exchange of letters in 1700 between George Hickes, Wanley's assistant, and Wanley. In the letter to Wanley, Hickes responds to an apparent charge against Smith, made by Wanley, that Smith had failed to mention the Beowulf script when cataloguing Cotton MS. Vitellius A. XV. Hickes replies to Wanley "I can find nothing yet of Beowulph."{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} Kiernan theorised that Smith failed to mention the Beowulf manuscript because of his reliance on previous catalogues or because either he had no idea how to describe it or because it was temporarily out of the codex.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}}


The Beowulf manuscript was transcribed from an original by two scribes, one of whom wrote the first 1939 lines and a second who wrote the remainder, with a difference in handwriting noticeable after line 1939.<ref name="Kiernan2" />{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Page needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[page needed] }} The script of the second scribe is archaic.<ref name="Kiernan2" />{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Page needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[page needed] }} While both scribes appear to proofread their work, there are nevertheless many errors.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref> The second scribe slaved over the poem for many years "with great reverence and care to restoration".<ref name="Kiernan2" />{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Page needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[page needed] }} The work of the second scribe bears a striking resemblance to the work of the first scribe of the Blickling homilies, and so much so that it is believed they derive from the same scriptorium.<ref name="Kiernan2" />{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Page needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[page needed] }} From knowledge of books held in the library at Malmesbury Abbey and available as source works, and from the identification of certain words particular to the local dialect found in the text, the transcription may have been made there.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> However, for at least a century, some scholars have maintained that the description of Grendel's lake in Beowulf was borrowed from St. Paul's vision of Hell in Homily 16 of the Blickling homilies.<ref name="Kiernan2" />{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Page needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[page needed] }} Most intriguing in the many versions of the Beowulf MS is the transcription of alliterative verse. From the first scribe's edits, emenders such as Klaeber were forced to alter words for the sake of the poem.


Icelandic scholar Grímur Jónsson Thorkelin made the first transcriptions of the manuscript in 1786 and published the results in 1815, working as part of a Danish government historical research commission. He made one himself, and had another done by a professional copyist who knew no Anglo-Saxon. Since that time, however, the manuscript has crumbled further, making these transcripts a prized witness to the text. While the recovery of at least 2000 letters can be attributed to them, their accuracy has been called into question,Unknown extension tag "ref" and the extent to which the manuscript was actually more readable in Thorkelin's time is uncertain.


In 1805, the historian Sharon Turner translated selected verses into modern English.<ref name=translationhistory>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> This was followed in 1814 by John Josias Conybeare who published an edition "in English paraphrase and Latin verse translation."<ref name=translationhistory /> In 1815, Grímur Jónsson Thorkelin published the first complete edition in Latin.<ref name=translationhistory /> N. F. S. Grundtvig reviewed this edition in 1815 and created the first complete verse translation in Danish in 1820.<ref name=translationhistory /> In 1837, J. M. Kemble created an important literal translation in English.<ref name=translationhistory /> In 1895, William Morris & A. J. Wyatt published the ninth English translation.<ref name=translationhistory /> In 1909, Francis Barton Gummere's full translation in "English imitative meter" was published,<ref name=translationhistory /> and was used as the text of Gareth Hinds's graphic novel based on Beowulf in 2007.

During the early 20th century, Frederick Klaeber's Beowulf and The Fight at Finnsburg<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> (which included the poem in Old English, an extensive glossary of Old English terms, and general background information) became the "central source used by graduate students for the study of the poem and by scholars and teachers as the basis of their translations."<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

A great number of translations are available, in poetry and prose. Andy Orchard, in A Critical Companion to Beowulf, lists 33 "representative" translations in his bibliography,{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} and it has been translated into at least 23 other languages.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}}

Seamus Heaney's 1999 translation of the poem (referred to by Howell Chickering and many others as "Heaneywulf"{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}}) was widely publicized but Chickering's translation remains the most helpful with its facing page translation and extensive notes. Translating Beowulf is one of the subjects of the 2012 publication Beowulf at Kalamazoo, containing a section with 10 essays on translation, and a section with 22 reviews of Heaney's translation (some of which compare Heaney's work with that of Anglo-Saxon scholar Roy Liuzza).{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} R. D. Fulk, of Indiana University, published the first facing-page edition and translation of the entire manuscript in the Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library series in 2010.<ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref>

J. R. R. Tolkien's long-awaited translation (edited by his son, Christopher) was published in 2014 (Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary).<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:Citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=journal }}</ref> This also includes Tolkien's own retelling of the story of Beowulf in his tale, Sellic Spell.

The fact that the poem ends with a woman of Beowulf's tribe asking "What will become of us now?" led to a sequel, Beyond Beowulf, published by Christopher L. Webber in 2006 that follows the further adventures of Wiglaf, the hero who helped Beowulf kill the dragon and became the new leader of the tribe. Webber then retold the sequel from the viewpoint of Yrfa, Wiglaf's wife, and published the two sequels with his own translation as The Beowulf Trilogy in 2012.

Debate over oral tradition

The question of whether Beowulf was passed down through oral tradition prior to its present manuscript form has been the subject of much debate, and involves more than simply the issue of its composition. Rather, given the implications of the theory of oral-formulaic composition and oral tradition, the question concerns how the poem is to be understood, and what sorts of interpretations are legitimate.

Scholarly discussion about Beowulf in the context of the oral tradition was extremely active throughout the 1960s and 1970s. The debate might be framed starkly as follows: on the one hand, we can hypothesise a poem put together from various tales concerning the hero (the Grendel episode, the Grendel's mother story, and the firedrake narrative). These fragments would be held for many years in tradition, and learned by apprenticeship from one generation of illiterate poets to the next. The poem is composed orally and extemporaneously, and the archive of tradition on which it draws is oral, pagan, Germanic, heroic, and tribal. On the other hand, one might posit a poem which is composed by a literate scribe, who acquired literacy by way of learning Latin (and absorbing Latinate culture and ways of thinking), probably a monk and therefore profoundly Christian in outlook. On this view, the pagan references would be a sort of decorative archaising.<ref name=COLORING210-217>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref><ref name="BENSON193-213">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> There is a third view that sees merit in both arguments above and attempts to bridge them, and so cannot be articulated as starkly as they can; it sees more than one Christianity and more than one attitude towards paganism at work in the poem; it sees the poem as initially the product of a literate Christian author with one foot in the pagan world and one in the Christian, himself perhaps a convert (or one whose forbears had been pagan), a poet who was conversant in both oral and literary composition and was capable of a masterful "repurposing" of poetry from the oral tradition.

However, scholars such as D.K. Crowne have proposed the idea that the poem was passed down from reciter to reciter under the theory of oral-formulaic composition, which hypothesises that epic poems were (at least to some extent) improvised by whoever was reciting them, and only much later written down. In his landmark work, The Singer of Tales, Albert Lord refers to the work of Francis P. Magoun and others, saying "the documentation is complete, thorough, and accurate. This exhaustive analysis is in itself sufficient to prove that Beowulf was composed orally."{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}}

Examination of Beowulf and other Anglo-Saxon poetry for evidence of oral-formulaic composition has met with mixed response. While "themes" (inherited narrative subunits for representing familiar classes of event, such as the "arming the hero",{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}} or the particularly well-studied "hero on the beach" theme<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref>) do exist across Anglo-Saxon and other Germanic works, some scholars conclude that Anglo-Saxon poetry is a mix of oral-formulaic and literate patterns, arguing that the poems both were composed on a word-by-word basis and followed larger formulae and patterns.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref>

Larry Benson argued that the interpretation of Beowulf as an entirely formulaic work diminishes the ability of the reader to analyze the poem in a unified manner, and with due attention to the poet's creativity. Instead, he proposed that other pieces of Germanic literature contain "kernels of tradition" from which Beowulf borrows and expands upon.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref><ref name=Foley>Foley, John M. Oral-Formulaic Theory and Research: An Introduction and Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1985. p. 126</ref> A few years later, Ann Watts argued against the imperfect application of one theory to two different traditions: traditional, Homeric, oral-formulaic poetry and Anglo-Saxon poetry.<ref name=Foley /><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> Thomas Gardner agreed with Watts, arguing that the Beowulf text is of too varied a nature to be completely constructed from set formulae and themes.<ref name=Foley /><ref>Gardner, Thomas. "How Free Was the Beowulf Poet?" Modern Philology. 1973. p. 111–27.</ref>

John Miles Foley wrote, referring to the Beowulf debate,<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> that while comparative work was both necessary and valid, it must be conducted with a view to the particularities of a given tradition; Foley argued with a view to developments of oral traditional theory that do not assume, or depend upon, ultimately unverifiable assumptions about composition, and instead delineate a more fluid continuum of traditionality and textuality.<ref>Bäuml, Franz H. "Varieties and Consequences of Medieval Literacy and Illiteracy", Speculum, Vol. 55, No. 2 (1980), pp. 243–44.</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref>{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn}}

Finally, in the view of Ursula Schaefer, the question of whether the poem was "oral" or "literate" becomes something of a red herring.<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=citation }}</ref> In this model, the poem is created, and is interpretable, within both noetic horizons. Schaefer's concept of "vocality" offers neither a compromise nor a synthesis of the views which see the poem as on the one hand Germanic, pagan, and oral and on the other Latin-derived, Christian, and literate, but, as stated by Monika Otter: "... a 'tertium quid', a modality that participates in both oral and literate culture yet also has a logic and aesthetic of its own."<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref>

Beowulf sections
Intro   Historical background    Summary    Authorship and date    Manuscript    Sources and analogues    Form and metre    Interpretation and criticism    Artistic adaptations    See also    References    External links   

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