City name::Baghdad


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City name The name Baghdad is pre-Islamic and its origins are under some dispute. The site where the city of Baghdad came to stand has been populated for millennia and by the 8th century AD several Aramaic Christian (Assyrian Christian) villages had developed there, including a Persian<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>Le Strange, G. (n.d.). [...] The Persian hamlet of Baghdad, on the Western bank of the Tigris, and just above where Sarat canal flowed in, was ultimately fixed upon [...]. In Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate (p. 9).</ref> hamlet called Baghdad, the name which would come to be used for the Abbasid metropolis.<ref name="">[1] Encyclopedia of Islam</ref>

According to one source the name Bagdadu appears on Assyrian cuneiform and Babylonian records going back to at least 2000 BC.<ref>Syria and Palestine</ref> An inscription by Nebuchadnezzar (600 BC) describes how he rebuilt the old Babylonian town of Bagh-dadu.<ref name="google">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> There used to be another Babylonian settlement called Baghdad, in upper Mesopotamia, near the ancient city of Edessa. The name has not been attested outside of Mesopotamia.<ref name=""/>

It has been proposed that the name is of Indo-European origin<ref name="Etymology Dictionary">Online Etymology Dictionary. (n.d.). Retrieved October 21, 2015.</ref> and a Middle Persian<ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref><ref></ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref>{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=book }}</ref> compound of Bagh (File:Baghpahlavi.png) "god" and dād (File:Dadpahlavi.png) "given by",<ref>Mackenzie, D. (1971). A concise Pahlavi Dictionary (p. 23, 16).</ref> translating to "Bestowed by God" or "God's gift". In Old Persian the first element can be traced to Boghu and is related to Slavic bog "god",<ref name="Etymology Dictionary"/> while the second can be traced to dadāti.<ref name="Strange pg 10">Guy Le Strange, "Baghdad During the Abbasid Caliphate from Contemporary Arabic and Persian", pg 10</ref> A similar term in Middle Persian is the name Mithradāt (Mihrdād in New Persian), known in English by its Hellenistic form Mithridates meaning "gift of Mithra" (dāt is the more archaic form of dād, related to Latin dat and English donor<ref name="Etymology Dictionary"/>). There are a number of other locations within Iran proper whose names are compounds of the word bagh, including a village called Bagh-šan (lit. "house of God", however bagh has also been used as a title in reference to kings and queens).<ref>Joneidi, F. (2007). متن‌های پهلوی. In Pahlavi Script and Language (Arsacid and Sassanid) نامه پهلوانی: آموزش خط و زبان پهلوی اشکانی و ساسانی (second ed., p. 109). Tehran: Balkh (نشر بلخ).</ref>

When the Abbasid caliph, al-Mansur, founded a completely new city for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace. This was the official name on coins, weights, and other official usage, although the common people continued to use the old name.<ref name="ما معنى اسم مدينة بغداد ومن سماه ؟">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref><ref name="">{{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}</ref> By the 11th century, "Baghdad" became almost the exclusive name for the world-renowned metropolis.

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