## ::Axiom

### ::concepts

Axioms::theory    Logic::axiom    System::which    Geometry::logical    These::should    Theorem::example

{{#invoke:Hatnote|hatnote}} {{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} {{#invoke:redirect hatnote|redirect}} {{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||\$N=Use dmy dates |date=__DATE__ |\$B= }} An axiom or postulate is a premise or starting point of reasoning. As classically conceived, an axiom is a premise so evident as to be accepted as true without controversy.<ref> "A proposition that commends itself to general acceptance; a well-established or universally conceded principle; a maxim, rule, law" axiom, n., definition 1a. Oxford English Dictionary Online, accessed 2012-04-28. Cf. Aristotle, Posterior Analytics I.2.72a18-b4.</ref> The word comes from the Greek axíōma (ἀξίωμα{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}) 'that which is thought worthy or fit' or 'that which commends itself as evident.'<ref>Cf. axiom, n., etymology. Oxford English Dictionary, accessed 2012-04-28.</ref><ref>Oxford American College Dictionary: "n. a statement or proposition that is regarded as being established, accepted, or self-evidently true. ORIGIN: late 15th cent.: ultimately from Greek axiōma 'what is thought fitting,' from axios 'worthy.' http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1O997-axiom.html </ref> As used in modern logic, an axiom is simply a premise or starting point for reasoning.<ref>"A proposition (whether true or false)" axiom, n., definition 2. Oxford English Dictionary Online, accessed 2012-04-28.</ref> What it means for an axiom, or any mathematical statement, to be "true" is a central question in the philosophy of mathematics, with modern mathematicians holding a multitude of different opinions.{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||date=__DATE__ |\$B= {{#invoke:Category handler|main}}{{#invoke:Category handler|main}}[citation needed] }}

In mathematics, the term axiom is used in two related but distinguishable senses: "logical axioms" and "non-logical axioms". Logical axioms are usually statements that are taken to be true within the system of logic they define (e.g., (A and B) implies A), while non-logical axioms (e.g., a + b = b + a) are actually substantive assertions about the elements of the domain of a specific mathematical theory (such as arithmetic). When used in the latter sense, "axiom," "postulate", and "assumption" may be used interchangeably. In general, a non-logical axiom is not a self-evident truth, but rather a formal logical expression used in deduction to build a mathematical theory. As modern mathematics admits multiple, equally "true" systems of logic, precisely the same thing must be said for logical axioms - they both define and are specific to the particular system of logic that is being invoked. To axiomatize a system of knowledge is to show that its claims can be derived from a small, well-understood set of sentences (the axioms). There are typically multiple ways to axiomatize a given mathematical domain.

In both senses, an axiom is any mathematical statement that serves as a starting point from which other statements are logically derived. Within the system they define, axioms (unless redundant) cannot be derived by principles of deduction, nor are they demonstrable by mathematical proofs, simply because they are starting points; there is nothing else from which they logically follow otherwise they would be classified as theorems. However, an axiom in one system may be a theorem in another, and vice versa.

Axiom sections